Financial Options with Applications to Real Options

ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS

15-1 a. An option is a contract which gives its holder the right to buy or sell an asset at some predetermined price within a specified period of time. A call option allows the holder to buy the asset, while a put option allows the holder to sell the asset.

b. A simple measure of an option’s value is its exercise value. The exercise value is equal to the current price of the stock (underlying the option) less the striking price of the option. The strike price is the price stated in the option contract at which the security can be bought (or sold). For example, if the underlying stock sells for $50 and the striking price is $20, the exercise value of the option would be $30.

c. The Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model is widely used by option traders to value options. It is derived from the concept of a riskless hedge. By buying shares of a stock and simultaneously selling call options on that stock, the investor will create a risk-free investment position. This riskless return must equal the risk-free rate or an arbitrage opportunity would exist. People would take advantage of this opportunity until the equilibrium level estimated by the Black-Scholes model was reached.

d. Real options occur when managers can influence the size and risk of a project’s cash flows by taking different actions during the project’s life. They are referred to as real options because they deal with real as opposed to financial assets. They are also called managerial options because they give opportunities to managers to respond to changing market conditions. Sometimes they are called strategic options because they often deal with strategic issues. Finally, they are also called embedded options because they are a part of another project.

e. Investment timing options give companies the option to delay a project rather than implement it immediately. This option to wait allows a company to reduce the uncertainty of market conditions before it decides to implement the project. Capacity options allow a company to change the capacity of their output in response to changing market conditions. This includes the option to contract or expand production. It also includes the option to abandon a project if market conditions deteriorate too much.

f. Decision trees are a form of scenario analysis in which different actions are taken in different scenarios.

g. Growth options allow a company to expand if market demand is higher than expected. This includes the opportunity to expand into different geographic markets and the opportunity to introduce complementary or second-generation products.

15-2 The market value of an option is typically higher than its exercise value due to the speculative nature of the investment. Options allow investors to gain a high degree of personal leverage when buying securities. The option allows the investor to limit his or her loss but amplify his or her return. The exact amount this protection is worth is the premium over the exercise value.

15-3 Postponing the project means that cash flows come later rather than sooner; however, waiting may allow you to take advantage of changing conditions. It might make sense, however, to proceed today if there are important advantages to being the first competitor to enter a market.

15-4 Timing options make it less likely that a project will be accepted today. Often, if a firm can delay a decision, it can increase the expected NPV of a project.

15-5 Having the option to abandon a project makes it more likely that the project will be accepted today.

SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS

15-1 P = $15; X = $15; t = 0.5; kRF = 0.10; s2 = 0.12; d1 = 0.32660;

d2 = 0.08165; N(d1) = 0.62795; N(d2) = 0.53252; V = ?

Using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model, you calculate the option’s value as:

V = P[N(d1)] - [N(d2)]

= $15(0.62795) - $15e(-0.10)(0.5)(0.53252)

= $9.4193 - $15(0.9512)(0.53252)

= $1.8211 » $1.82.

15-2 Option’s exercise price = $15; Exercise value = $22; Premium value = $5;

V = ? P0 = ?

Premium = Market price of option - Exercise value

$5 = V - $22

V = $27.

Exercise value = P0 - Exercise price

$22 = P0 - $15

P0 = $37.

15-3 a. 0 1 2 20

| | | · · · |

-20 3 3 3

NPV = $1.074 million.

b. Wait 1 year:

PV @

0 1 2 3 21 Yr. 1

Tax imposed | | | | · · · |

50% Prob. 0 -20 2.2 2.2 2.2 15.45

Tax not imposed | | | | · · · |

50% Prob. 0 -20 3.8 3.8 3.8 26.69

Tax imposed: NPV @ Yr. 1 = (-20 + 15.45)/(1.13) = -4.027

Tax not imposed: NPV @ Yr 1 = (-20 + 26.69)/ (1.13) = 5.920

Expected NPV = .5(-4.027) + .5(5.920) = 0.947

Note though, that if the tax is imposed, the NPV of the project is negative and therefore would not be undertaken. The value of this option of waiting one year is evaluated as 0.5($0) + (0.5)($ 5.920) = $2.96 million.

Since the NPV of waiting one year is greater than going ahead and proceeding with the project today, it makes sense to wait.

15-4 a. 0 1 2 3 4

| | | | |

-8 4 4 4 4

NPV = $4.6795 million.

b. Wait 2 years:

PV @

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Yr. 2

| | | | | | |

10% Prob. 0 0 -9 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 $6.974

| | | | | | |

90% Prob. 0 0 -9 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 $13.313

Low CF scenario: NPV = (-9 + 6.974)/(1.1)2 = -$1.674

High CF scenario: NPV = (-9 + 13.313)/(1.1)2 = $3.564

Expected NPV = .1(-1.674) + .9(3.564) = 3.040

If the cash flows are only $2.2 million, the NPV of the project is negative and, thus, would not be undertaken. The value of the option of waiting two years is evaluated as 0.10($0) + 0.90($3.564) = $3.208 million.

Since the NPV of waiting two years is less than going ahead and proceeding with the project today, it makes sense to drill today.

15-5 a. 0 1 2 20

| | | · · · |

-300 40 40 40

NPV = -$19.0099 million. Don’t purchase.

b. Wait 1 year:

NPV @

0 1 2 3 4 21 Yr. 0

| | | | | · · · |

50% Prob. 0 -300 30 30 30 30 -$78.9889

| | | | | · · · |

50% Prob. 0 -300 50 50 50 50 45.3430

If the cash flows are only $30 million per year, the NPV of the project is negative. However, we’ve not considered the fact that the company could then be sold for $280 million. The decision tree would then look like this:

NPV @

0 1 2 3 4 21 Yr. 0

| | | | | · · · |

50% Prob. 0 -300 30 30 + 280 0 0 -$27.1468

| | | | | · · · |

50% Prob. 0 -300 50 50 50 50 45.3430

The expected NPV of waiting 1 year is 0.5(-$27.1468) + 0.5($45.3430) = $9.0981 million.

Given the option to sell, it makes sense to wait 1 year before deciding whether to make the acquisition.

15-6 a. 0 1 14 15

| | · · · | |

-6,200,000 600,000 600,000 600,000

Using a financial calculator, input the following data:

CF0 = -6,200,000; CF1-15 = 600,000; I = 12; and then solve for NPV =

-$2,113,481.31.

b. 0 1 14 15

| | · · · | |

-6,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000

Using a financial calculator, input the following data:

CF0 = -6,200,000; CF1-15 = 1,200,000; I = 12; and then solve for NPV = $1,973,037.39.

c. If they proceed with the project today, the project’s expected NPV = (0.5 ? -$2,113,481.31) + (0.5 ? $1,973,037.39) = -$70,221.96. So, Hart Enterprises would not do it.

d. Since the project’s NPV with the tax is negative, if the tax were imposed the firm would abandon the project. Thus, the decision tree looks like this:

NPV @

0 1 2 15 Yr. 0

50% Prob. | | | · · · |

Taxes -6,200,000 6,000,000 0 0 -$ 842,857.14

No Taxes | | | · · · |

50% Prob. -6,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,973,037.39

Expected NPV $ 565,090.13

Yes, the existence of the abandonment option changes the expected NPV of the project from negative to positive. Given this option the firm would take on the project because its expected NPV is $565,090.13.

e. NPV @

0 1 Yr. 0

50% Prob. | |

Taxes NPV = ? -1,500,000 $ 0.00

+300,000 = NPV @ t = 1

No Taxes | |

50% Prob. NPV = ? -1,500,000 2,232,142.86

+4,000,000 = NPV @ t = 1 Expected NPV $1,116,071.43

If the firm pays $1,116,071.43 for the option to purchase the land, then the NPV of the project is exactly equal to zero. So the firm would not pay any more than this for the option.

15-7 P = PV of all expected future cash flows if project is delayed. From Problem 15-3 we know that PV @ Year 1 of Tax Imposed scenario is $15.45 and PV @ Year 1 of Tax Not Imposed Scenario is $26.69. So the PV is:

P = [0.5(15.45)+ 0.5(26.690] / 1.13 = $18.646.

X = $20.

t = 1.

kRF = 0.08.

s2 = 0.0687.

d1 = ln[18.646/20] + [0.08 + .5(.0687)](1) = 0.1688

(.0687)0.5 (1)0.5

d2 = 0.1688 - (.0687)0.5 (1)0.5 = -0.0933

From Excel function NORMSDIST, or approximated from Table 7E-1 in Extension to Chapter 7:

N(d1) = 0.5670

N(d2) = 0.4628

Using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model, you calculate the option’s value as:

V = P[N(d1)] - [N(d2)]

= $18.646(0.5670) - $20e(-0.08)(1)(0.4628)

= $10.572 - $8.544

= $2.028 million.

15-8 P = PV of all expected future cash flows if project is delayed. From Problem 15-4 we know that PV @ Year 2 of Low CF Scenario is $6.974 and PV @ Year 2 of High CF Scenario is $13.313. So the PV is:

P = [0.1(6.974)+ 0.9(13.313] / 1.102 = $10.479.

X = $9.

t = 2.

kRF = 0.06.

s2 = 0.0111.

d1 = ln[10.479/9] + [0.06 + .5(.0111)](2) = 1.9010

(.0111)0.5 (2)0.5

d2 = 1.9010 - (.0111)0.5 (2)0.5 = 1.7520

From Excel function NORMSDIST, or approximated from Table 7E-1 in Extension to Chapter 7:

N(d1) = 0.9713

N(d2) = 0.9601

Using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model, you calculate the option’s value as:

V = P[N(d1)] - [N(d2)]

= $10.479(0.9713) - $9e(-0.06)(2)(0.9601)

= $10.178 - $7.664

= $2.514 million.

SOLUTION TO SPREADSHEET PROBLEMS

15-9 The detailed solution for the problem is available both on the instructor’s resource CD-ROM (in the file Solution for Ch 15-9 Build a Model.xls) and on the instructor’s side of the Harcourt College Publishers’ web site, http://www.harcourtcollege.com/finance/theory10e.

15-10 The detailed solution for the problem is available both on the instructor’s resource CD-ROM (in the file Solution for Ch 15-10 Build a Model.xls) and on the instructor’s side of the Harcourt College Publishers’ web site, http://www.harcourtcollege.com/finance/theory10e.

15-11 a. The input variables are:

P = $10; X = $10; t = 6 months = 0.5 years; s2 = 0.16; and kRF = 12%.

Now, we proceed to use the OPM:

V = $10[N(d1)] - $10e-(0.12)(0.5)[N(d2)].

d1 = = = 0.35355.

d2 = d1 - 0.28284 = 0.35355 - 0.28284 = 0.07071.

N(d1) = N(0.35355) = 0.5000 + 0.13812 = 0.63812.

N(d2) = N(0.07071) = 0.5000 + 0.02817 = 0.52817.

Thus, V = $10(0.63812) - $10e-0.06(0.52817)

= $6.3812 - $10(0.94176)(0.52817)

= $6.3812 - $4.9743 = $1.4069 » $1.41.

b. Now, s2 = 0.09 rather than 0.16. Thus, repeat the above process with one change in the input variables:

d1 = = = 0.38891.

d2 = d1 - 0.21213 = 0.38891 - 0.21213 = 0.17678.

N(d1) = N(0.38891) = 0.5000 + 0.15127 = 0.65127.

N(d2) = N(0.17678) = 0.5000 + 0.07012 = 0.57012.

Thus, V = $10(0.65127) - $10e-0.06(0.57012)

= $6.5127 - $10(0.94176)(0.57012)

= $6.5127 - $5.3692 = $1.1435 » $1.14.

We see that the value of the option is decreased by $1.41 - $1.14 = $0.27 by the reduction in variance.

Through the use of a calculator and the formulas demonstrated above (or the computer diskette), we find that an increase in variance to 0.20 produces a call price of $1.53.

When the security underlying the call option possesses a lower variance of returns, the price of the call is likewise lower. Call options on securities with higher variances have higher prices. With call options, a higher variance is desirable. Along with the higher variance comes the possibility that the price of the underlying stock will increase far enough above the exercise price to generate a profit for the investor.

c. Assuming a current stock price of $15, the option's value (as calculated using the Black-Scholes OPM on the computer diskette) jumps to $5.65. The call is much more valuable because its current price already exceeds the exercise price. An investor who purchases this call, then, is expecting the price to go even farther above the exercise price.

d. In this case, the value of the option decreases to $0.18. The reduction in the value of the option is due to the fact that the exercise price is well above the current stock price.

CYBERPROBLEM

15-12 The detailed solution for the cyberproblem is available on the instructor’s side of the Harcourt College Publishers’ web site: http://www.harcourtcollege.com/finance/theory10e.

MINI CASE

ASSUME THAT YOU HAVE JUST BEEN HIRED AS A FINANCIAL ANALYST BY TROPICAL SWEETS INC., A MID-SIZED CALIFORNIA COMPANY THAT SPECIALIZES IN CREATING EXOTIC CANDIES FROM TROPICAL FRUITS SUCH AS MANGOES, PAPAYAS, AND DATES. THE FIRM'S CEO, GEORGE YAMAGUCHI, RECENTLY RETURNED FROM AN INDUSTRY CORPORATE EXECUTIVE CONFERENCE IN SAN FRANCISCO, AND ONE OF THE SESSIONS HE ATTENDED WAS ON REAL OPTIONS. SINCE NO ONE AT TROPICAL SWEETS IS FAMILIAR WITH THE BASICS EITHER FINANCIAL OR REAL OPTIONS, YAMAGUCHI HAS ASKED YOU TO PREPARE A BRIEF REPORT THAT THE FIRM'S EXECUTIVES COULD USE TO GAIN AT LEAST A CURSORY UNDERSTANDING OF THE TOPICS.

TO BEGIN, YOU GATHERED SOME OUTSIDE MATERIALS THE SUBJECT AND USED THESE MATERIALS TO DRAFT A LIST OF PERTINENT QUESTIONS THAT NEED TO BE ANSWERED. IN FACT, ONE POSSIBLE APPROACH TO THE PAPER IS TO USE A QUESTION-AND-ANSWER FORMAT. NOW THAT THE QUESTIONS HAVE BEEN DRAFTED, YOU HAVE TO DEVELOP THE ANSWERS.

A. WHAT IS A REAL OPTION? WHAT IS A FINANCIAL OPTIONS? WHAT IS THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTIC OF AN OPTION?

ANSWER: REAL OPTIONS EXIST WHEN MANAGERS CAN INFLUENCE THE SIZE AND RISK OF A PROJECT’S CASH FLOWS BY TAKING DIFFERENT ACTIONS DURING THE PROJECT’S LIFE IN RESPONSE TO CHANGING MARKET CONDITIONS. ALERT MANAGERS ALWAYS LOOK FOR REAL OPTIONS IN PROJECTS. SMARTER MANAGERS TRY TO CREATE REAL OPTIONS. A FINANCIAL OPTION IS A CONTRACT WHICH GIVES ITS HOLDER THE RIGHT TO BUY (OR SELL) AN ASSET AT A PREDETERMINED PRICE WITHIN A SPECIFIED PERIOD OF TIME. AN OPTION’S MOST IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTIC IS THAT IT DOES NOT OBLIGATE ITS OWNER TO TAKE ANY ACTION; IT MERELY GIVES THE OWNER THE RIGHT TO BUY OR SELL AN ASSET.

B. OPTIONS HAVE A UNIQUE SET OF TERMINOLOGY. DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS: (1) CALL OPTION; (2) PUT OPTION; (3) EXERCISE PRICE; (4) STRIKING, OR STRIKE, PRICE; (5) OPTION PRICE; (6) EXPIRATION DATE; (7) EXERCISE VALUE; (8) COVERED OPTION; (9) NAKED OPTION; (10) IN-THE-MONEY CALL; (11) OUT-OF-THE-MONEY CALL; AND (12) LEAP.

ANSWER: 1. A CALL OPTION IS AN OPTION TO BUY A SPECIFIED NUMBER OF SHARES OF A SECURITY WITHIN SOME FUTURE PERIOD.

2. A PUT OPTION IS AN OPTION TO SELL A SPECIFIED NUMBER OF SHARES OF A SECURITY WITHIN SOME FUTURE PERIOD.

3. EXERCISE PRICE IS ANOTHER NAME FOR STRIKE PRICE, THE PRICE STATED IN THE OPTION CONTRACT AT WHICH THE SECURITY CAN BE BOUGHT (OR SOLD).

4. THE STRIKE PRICE IS THE PRICE STATED IN THE OPTION CONTRACT AT WHICH THE SECURITY CAN BE BOUGHT (OR SOLD).

5. THE OPTION PRICE IS THE MARKET PRICE OF THE OPTION CONTRACT.

6. THE EXPIRATION DATE IS THE DATE THE OPTION MATURES.

7. THE EXERCISE VALUE IS THE VALUE OF A CALL OPTION IF IT WERE EXERCISED TODAY, AND IT IS EQUAL TO THE CURRENT STOCK PRICE MINUS THE STRIKE PRICE. NOTE: THE EXERCISE VALUE IS ZERO IF THE STOCK PRICE IS LESS THAN THE STRIKE PRICE.

8. A COVERED OPTION IS A CALL OPTION WRITTEN AGAINST STOCK HELD IN AN INVESTOR'S PORTFOLIO.

9. A NAKED OPTION IS AN OPTION SOLD WITHOUT THE STOCK TO BACK IT UP.

10. AN IN-THE-MONEY CALL IS A CALL OPTION WHOSE EXERCISE PRICE IS LESS THAN THE CURRENT PRICE OF THE UNDERLYING STOCK.

11. AN OUT-OF-THE-MONEY CALL IS A CALL OPTION WHOSE EXERCISE PRICE EXCEEDS THE CURRENT STOCK PRICE.

12. LEAP STANDS FOR LONG-TERM EQUITY ANTICIPATION SECURITIES. THEY ARE SIMILAR TO CONVENTIONAL OPTIONS EXCEPT THEY ARE LONG-TERM OPTIONS WITH MATURITIES OF UP TO 2? YEARS.

C. CONSIDER TROPICAL SWEETS' CALL OPTION WITH A $25 STRIKE PRICE. THE FOLLOWING TABLE CONTAINS HISTORICAL VALUES FOR THIS OPTION AT DIFFERENT STOCK PRICES:

STOCK PRICE CALL OPTION PRICE

$25 $ 3.00

30 7.50

35 12.00

40 16.50

45 21.00

50 25.50

1. CREATE A TABLE WHICH SHOWS (A) STOCK PRICE, (B) STRIKE PRICE, (C) EXERCISE VALUE, (D) OPTION PRICE, AND (E) THE PREMIUM OF OPTION PRICE OVER EXERCISE VALUE.

ANSWER: PRICE OF STRIKE EXERCISE VALUE MARKET PRICE PREMIUM

STOCK PRICE OF OPTION OF OPTION (D) - (C) =

(A) (B) (A) - (B) = (C) (D) (E)

$25.00 $25.00 $ 0.00 $ 3.00 $3.00

30.00 25.00 5.00 7.50 2.50

35.00 25.00 10.00 12.00 2.00

40.00 25.00 15.00 16.50 1.50

45.00 25.00 20.00 21.00 1.00

50.00 25.00 25.00 25.50 0.50

C. 2. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE PREMIUM OF OPTION PRICE OVER EXERCISE VALUE AS THE STOCK PRICE RISES? WHY?

ANSWER: AS THE TABLE SHOWS, THE PREMIUM OF THE OPTION PRICE OVER THE EXERCISE VALUE DECLINES AS THE STOCK PRICE INCREASES. THIS IS DUE TO THE DECLINING DEGREE OF LEVERAGE PROVIDED BY OPTIONS AS THE UNDERLYING STOCK PRICES INCREASE, AND TO THE GREATER LOSS POTENTIAL OF OPTIONS AT HIGHER OPTION PRICES.

D. IN 1973, FISCHER BLACK AND MYRON SCHOLES DEVELOPED THE BLACK-SCHOLES OPTION PRICING MODEL (OPM).

1. WHAT ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLIE THE OPM?

ANSWER: THE ASSUMPTIONS WHICH UNDERLIE THE OPM ARE AS FOLLOWS:

THE STOCK UNDERLYING THE CALL OPTION PROVIDES NO DIVIDENDS DURING THE LIFE OF THE OPTION.

NO TRANSACTIONS COSTS ARE INVOLVED WITH THE SALE OR PURCHASE OF EITHER THE STOCK OR THE OPTION.

THE SHORT-TERM, RISK-FREE INTEREST RATE IS KNOWN AND IS CONSTANT DURING THE LIFE OF THE OPTION.

SECURITY BUYERS MAY BORROW ANY FRACTION OF THE PURCHASE PRICE AT THE SHORT-TERM, RISK-FREE RATE.

SHORT-TERM SELLING IS PERMITTED WITHOUT PENALTY, AND SELLERS RECEIVE IMMEDIATELY THE FULL CASH PROCEEDS AT TODAY'S PRICE FOR SECURITIES SOLD SHORT.

THE CALL OPTION CAN BE EXERCISED ONLY ON ITS EXPIRATION DATE.

SECURITY TRADING TAKES PLACE IN CONTINUOUS TIME, AND STOCK PRICES MOVE RANDOMLY IN CONTINUOUS TIME.

D. 2. WRITE OUT THE THREE EQUATIONS THAT CONSTITUTE THE MODEL.

ANSWER: THE OPM CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING THREE EQUATIONS:

V = P[N(d1) - [N(d2)].

d1 = .

d2 = d1 - .

HERE,

V = CURRENT VALUE OF A CALL OPTION WITH TIME t UNTIL EXPIRATION.

P = CURRENT PRICE OF THE UNDERLYING STOCK.

N(di) = PROBABILITY THAT A DEVIATION LESS THAN di WILL OCCUR IN A STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION. THUS, N(d1) AND N(d2) REPRESENT AREAS UNDER A STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION.

X = EXERCISE, OR STRIKE, PRICE OF THE OPTION.

e » 2.7183.

kRF = RISK-FREE INTEREST RATE.

t = TIME UNTIL THE OPTION EXPIRES (THE OPTION PERIOD).

ln(P/X) = NATURAL LOGARITHM OF P/X.

s2 = VARIANCE OF THE RATE OF RETURN ON THE STOCK.

D. 3. WHAT IS THE VALUE OF THE FOLLOWING CALL OPTION ACCORDING TO THE OPM?

STOCK PRICE = $27.00.

EXERCISE PRICE = $25.00

TIME TO EXPIRATION = 6 MONTHS.

RISK-FREE RATE = 6.0%.

STOCK RETURN VARIANCE = 0.11.

ANSWER: THE INPUT VARIABLES ARE:

P = $27.00; X = $25.00; kRF = 6.0%; t = 6 months = 0.5 years; and s2 = 0.11.

NOW, WE PROCEED TO USE THE OPM:

V = $27[N(d1)] - $25e-(0.06)(0.5)[N(d2)].

d1 =

= = 0.5736.

d2 = d1 - (0.3317)(0.7071) = d1 - 0.2345

= 0.5736 - 0.2345 = 0.3391.

N(d1) = N(0.5736) = 0.5000 + 0.2168 = 0.7168.

N(d2) = N(0.3391) = 0.5000 + 0.1327 = 0.6327.

THEREFORE,

V = $27(0.7168) - $25e-0.03(0.6327) = $19.3536 - $25(0.97045)(0.6327)

= $19.3536 - $15.3500 = $4.0036 » $4.00.

THUS, UNDER THE OPM, THE VALUE OF THE CALL OPTION IS ABOUT $4.00.

E. WHAT IMPACT DOES EACH OF THE FOLLOWING CALL OPTION PARAMETERS HAVE ON THE VALUE OF A CALL OPTION?

1. CURRENT STOCK PRICE

2. EXERCISE PRICE

3. OPTION’S TERM TO MATURITY

4. RISK-FREE RATE

5. VARIABILITY OF THE STOCK PRICE

ANSWER: 1. THE VALUE OF A CALL OPTION INCREASES (DECREASES) AS THE CURRENT STOCK PRICE INCREASES (DECREASES).

2. AS THE EXERCISE PRICE OF THE OPTION INCREASES (DECREASES), THE VALUE OF THE OPTION DECREASES (INCREASES).

3. AS THE EXPIRATION DATE OF THE OPTION IS LENGTHENED, THE VALUE OF THE OPTION INCREASES. THIS IS BECAUSE THE VALUE OF THE OPTION DEPENDS ON THE CHANCE OF A STOCK PRICE INCREASE, AND THE LONGER THE OPTION PERIOD, THE HIGHER THE STOCK PRICE CAN CLIMB.

4. AS THE RISK-FREE RATE INCREASES, THE VALUE OF THE OPTION TENDS TO INCREASE AS WELL. SINCE INCREASES IN THE RISK-FREE RATE TEND TO DECREASE THE PRESENT VALUE OF THE OPTION'S EXERCISE PRICE, THEY ALSO TEND TO INCREASE THE CURRENT VALUE OF THE OPTION.

5. THE GREATER THE VARIANCE IN THE UNDERLYING STOCK PRICE, THE GREATER THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE STOCK'S PRICE WILL EXCEED THE EXERCISE PRICE OF THE OPTION; THUS, THE MORE VALUABLE THE OPTION WILL BE.

F. WHAT ARE SOME TYPES OF REAL OPTIONS?

ANSWER: 1. INVESTMENT TIMING OPTIONS

2. GROWTH OPTIONS

A. EXPANSION OF EXISTING PRODUCT LINE

B. NEW PRODUCTS

C. NEW GEOGRAPHIC MARKETS

3. ABANDONMENT OPTIONS

A. CONTRACTION

B. TEMORARY SUSPENSION

C. COMPLETE ABANDONMENT

4. FLEXIBILITY OPTIONS.

G. WHAT ARE FIVE POSSIBLE PROCEDURES FOR ANALYZING A REAL OPTION?

ANSWER: 1. DCF ANALYSIS OF EXPECTED CASH FLOWS, IGNORING OPTION.

2. QUALITATIVELY ASSESS THE VALUE OF THE REAL OPTION.

3. DECISION TREE ANALYSIS.

4. USE A MODEL FOR A CORRESPONDING FINANCIAL OPTION, IF POSSIBLE.

5. USE FINANCIAL ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES IF A CORRESPONDING FINANCIAL OPTION IS NOT AVAILABLE.

H. TROPICAL SWEETS IS CONSIDERING A PROJECT THAT WILL COST $70 MILLION AND WILL GENERATE EXPECTED CASH FLOWS OF $30 PER YEAR FOR THREE YEARS. THE COST OF CAPITAL FOR THIS TYPE OF PROJECT IS 10 PERCENT AND THE RISK-FREE RATE IS 6 PERCENT. AFTER DISCUSSIONS WITH THE MARKETING DEPARTMENT, YOU LEARN THAT THERE IS A 30 PERCENT CHANCE OF HIGH DEMAND, WITH FUTURE CASH FLOWS OF $45 MILLION PER YEAR. THERE IS A 40 PERCENT CHANCE OF AVERAGE DEMAND, WITH CASH FLOWS OF $30 MILLION PER YEAR. IF DEMAND IS LOW (A 30 PERCENT CHANCE), CASH FLOWS WILL BE ONLY $15 MILLION PER YEAR. WHAT IS THE EXPECTED NPV?

ANSWER: INITIAL COST = $70 MILLION

EXPECTED CASH FLOWS = $30 MILLION PER YEAR FOR THREE YEARS

COST OF CAPITAL = 10%

PV OF EXPECTED CFS = $74.61 MILLION

EXPECTED NPV = $74.61 - $70

= $4.61 MILLION

ALTERNATIVELY, ONE COULD CALCULATE THE NPV OF EACH SCENARIO:

DEMAND PROBABILITY ANNUAL CASH FLOW

HIGH 30% $45

AVERAGE 40% $30

LOW 30% $15

FIND NPV OF EACH SCENARIO:

PV HIGH: N=3 I=10 PV=? PMT=-45 FV=0

PV= 111.91

NPV HIGH = $111.91 - $70 = $41.91 MILLION.

PV AVERAGE: N=3 I=10 PV=? PMT=-30 FV=0

PV= 74.61

NPV AVERAGE = $74.61 - $70 = $4.71 MILLION.

PV LOW: N=3 I=10 PV=? PMT=-15 FV=0

PV= 37.30

NPV LOW = $37.30 - $70 = -$32.70 MILLION.

FIND EXPECTED NPV:

E(NPV)=.3($41.91)+.4($4.61)+.3(-$32.70)

E(PV)= $4.61.

I. NOW SUPPOSE THIS PROJECT HAS AN INVESTMENT TIMING OPTION, SINCE IT CAN BE DELAYED FOR A YEAR. THE COST WILL STILL BE $70 MILLION AT THE END OF THE YEAR, AND THE CASH FLOWS FOR THE SCENARIOS WILL STILL LAST THREE YEARS. HOWEVER, TROPICAL SWEETS WILL KNOW THE LEVEL OF DEMAND, AND WILL IMPLEMENT THE PROJECT ONLY IF IT ADDS VALUE TO THE COMPANY. PERFORM A QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE INVESTMENT TIMING OPTION’S VALUE.

ANSWER: IF WE IMMEDIATELY PROCEED WITH THE PROJECT, ITS EXPECTED NPV IS $4.61 MILLION. HOWEVER, THE PROJECT IS VERY RISKY. IF DEMAND IS HIGH, NPV WILL BE $41.91 MILLION. IF DEMAND IS AVERAGE, NPV WILL BE $4.61 MILLION. IF DEMAND IS LOW, NPV WILL BE -$32.70 MILLION. HOWEVER, IF WE WAIT ONE YEAR, WE WILL FIND OUT ADDITIONAL INFORMATION REGARDING DEMAND. IF DEMAND IS LOW, WE WON’T IMPLEMENT PROJECT. IF WE WAIT, THE UP-FRONT COST AND CASH FLOWS WILL STAY THE SAME, EXCEPT THEY WILL BE SHIFTED AHEAD BY A YEAR.

THE VALUE OF ANY REAL OPTION INCREASES IF THE UNDERLYING PROJECT IS VERY RISKY OR IF THERE IS A LONG TIME BEFORE YOU MUST EXERCISE THE OPTION.

THIS PROJECT IS RISKY AND HAS ONE YEAR BEFORE WE MUST DECIDE, SO THE OPTION TO WAIT IS PROBABLY VALUABLE.

J. USE DECISION TREE ANALYSIS TO CALCULATE THE NPV OF THE PROJECT WITH THE INVESTMENT TIMING OPTION.

ANSWER: THE PROJECT WILL BE IMPLEMENTED ONLY IF DEMAND IS AVERAGE OR HIGH.

HERE IS THE TIME LINE:

0 1 2 3 4

HIGH $0 -$70 $45 $45 $45

AVERAGE $0 -$70 $30 $30 $30

LOW $0 $0 $0 $0 $0

TO FIND THE NPVC, DISCOUNT THE COST AT THE RISK-FREE RATE OF 6 PERCENT SINCE IT IS KNOWN FOR CERTAIN, AND DISCOUNT THE OTHER RISKY CASH FLOWS AT THE 10 PERCENT COST OF CAPITAL.

HIGH: NPV = -$70/1.06 + $45/1.102 + $45/1.103 +$45/1.104 = $35.70

AVERAGE: NPV = -$70/1.06 + $30/1.102 + $30/1.103 +$30/1.104 = $1.79

LOW: NPV = $0.

EXPECTED NPV = 0.3($35.70) + 0.4($1.79) + 0.3($0) = $11.42.

SINCE THIS IS MUCH GREATER THAN THE NPV OF IMMEDIATE IMPLEMENTATION (WHICH IS $4.61 MILLION) WE SHOULD WAIT. IN OTHER WORDS, IMPLEMENTING IMMEDIATELY GIVES AN EXPECTED NPV OF $4.61 MILLION, BUT IMPLEMENTING IMMEDIATELY MEANS WE GIVE UP THE OPTION TO WAIT, WHICH IS WORTH $11.42 MILLION.

K. USE A FINANCIAL OPTION PRICING MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE VALUE OF THE INVESTMENT TIMING OPTION.

ANSWER: THE OPTION TO WAIT RESEMBLES A FINANCIAL CALL OPTION-- WE GET TO “BUY” THE PROJECT FOR $70 MILLION IN ONE YEAR IF VALUE OF PROJECT IN ONE YEAR IS GREATER THAN $70 MILLION. THIS IS LIKE A CALL OPTION WITH AN EXERCISE PRICE OF $70 MILLION AND AN EXPIRATION DATE OF ONE YEAR.

X = EXERCISE PRICE = COST OF IMPLEMENT PROJECT = $70 MILLION.

KRF = RISK-FREE RATE = 6%.

T = TIME TO MATURITY = 1 YEAR.

P = CURRENT PRICE OF STOCK = CURRENT VALUE OF THE PROJECT’S FUTURE CASH FLOWS.

s2 = VARIANCE OF STOCK RETURN = VARIANCE OF PROJECT’S RATE OF RETURN.

WE EXPLAIN HOW TO CALCULATE P AND s2 BELOW.

JUST AS THE PRICE OF A STOCK IS THE PRESENT VALUE OF ALL THE STOCK’S FUTURE CASH FLOWS, THE “PRICE” OF THE REAL OPTION IS THE PRESENT VALUE OF ALL THE PROJECT’S CASH FLOWS THAT OCCUR BEYOND THE EXERCISE DATE. NOTICE THAT THE EXERCISE COST OF AN OPTION DOES NOT AFFECT THE STOCK PRICE. SIMILARLY, THE COST TO IMPLEMENT THE REAL OPTION DOES NOT AFFECT THE CURRENT VALUE OF THE UNDERLYING ASSET (WHICH IS THE PV OF THE PROJECT’S CASH FLOWS). IT WILL BE HELPFUL IN LATER STEPS IF WE BREAK THE CALCUATION INTO TWO PARTS. FIRST, WE FIND THE VALUE OF ALL CASH FLOWS BEYOND THE EXERCISE DATE DISCOUNTED BACK TO THE EXERCISE DATE. THEN WE FIND THE EXPECTED PRESENT VALUE OF THOSE VALUES.

STEP 1: FIND THE VALUE OF ALL CASH FLOWS BEYOND THE EXERCISE DATE DISCOUNTED BACK TO THE EXERCISE DATE. HERE IS THE TIME LINE. THE EXERCISE DATE IS YEAR 1, SO WE DISCOUNT ALL FUTURE CASH FLOWS BACK TO YEAR 1.

0 1 2 3 4

HIGH $45 $45 $45

AVERAGE $30 $30 $30

LOW $15 $15 $15

HIGH: PV1 = $45/1.10 + $45/1.102 + $45/1.103 = $111.91

AVERAGE: PV1 = $30/1.10 + $30/1.102 + $30/1.103 = $74.61

LOW: PV1 = $15/1.10 + $15/1.102 + $15/1.103 = $37.30

THE CURRENT EXPECTED PRESENT VALUE, P, IS:

P = 0.3[$111.91/1.1] + 0.4[$74.61/1.1] + 0.3[$37.30/1.1] = $67.82.

FOR A STOCK OPTION, s2 IS THE VARIANCE OF THE STOCK RETURN, NOT THE VARIANCE OF THE STOCK PRICE. THEREFORE, FOR A REAL OPTION WE NEED THE VARIANCE OF THE PROJECT’S RATE OF RETURN. THERE ARE THREE WAYS TO ESTIMATE THIS VARIANCE. FIRST, WE CAN USE SUBJECTIVE JUDGMENT. SECOND, WE CAN CALCULATE THE PROJECT’S RETURN IN EACH SCENARIO AND THEN CALCULATE THE RETURN’S VARIANCE. THIS IS THE DIRECT APPROACH. THIRD, WE KNOW THE PROJECTS VALUE AT EACH SCENARIO AT THE EXPIRATION DATE, AND WE KNOW THE CURRENT VALUE OF THE PROJECT. THUS, WE CAN FIND A VARIANCE OF PROJECT RETURN THAT GIVES THE RANGE OF PROJECT VALUES THAT CAN OCCUR AT EXPIRATION. THIS IS THE INDIRECT APPROACH.

FOLLOWING IS AN EXPLANATION OF EACH APPROACH.

SUBJECTIVE ESTIMATE:

THE TYPICAL STOCK HAS s2 OF ABOUT 12%. MOST PROJECTS WILL BE SOMEWHAT RISKIER THAN THE FIRM, SINCE THE RISK OF THE FIRM REFLECTS THE DIVERSIFICATION THAT COMES FROM HAVING MANY PROJECT. SUBJECTIVELY SCALE THE VARIANCE OF THE COMPANY’S STOCK RETURN UP OR DOWN TO REFLECT THE RISK OF THE PROJECT. THE COMPANY IN OUR EXAMPLE HAS A STOCK WITH A VARIANCE OF 10%, SO WE MIGHT EXPECT THE PROJECT TO HAVE A VARIANCE IN THE RANGE OF 12% TO 19%.

DIRECT APPROACH:

FROM OUR PREVIOUS ANALYSIS, WE KNOW THE CURRENT VALUE OF THE PROJECT AND THE VALUE FOR EACH SCENARIO AT THE TIME THE OPTION EXPIRES (YEAR 1). HERE IS THE TIME LINE:

CURRENT VALUE VALUE AT EXPIRATION

YEAR 0 YEAR 1

HIGH $67.82 $111.91

AVERAGE $67.82 $74.61

LOW $67.82 $37.30

THE ANNUAL RATE OF RETURN IS:

HIGH: RETURN = ($111.91/$67.82) – 1 = 65%.

HIGH: AVERAGE = ($74.61/$67.82) – 1 = 10%.

HIGH: RETURN = ($37.30/$67.82) – 1 = -45%.

EXPECTED RETURN = 0.3(0.65) + 0.4(0.10) + 0.3(-0.45)

= 10%.

s2 = 0.3(0.65-0.10)2 + 0.4(0.10-0.10)2 + 0.3(-0.45-0.10)2

= 0.182 = 18.2%.

THE DIRECT APPROACH GIVES AN ESTIMATE OF 18.2% FOR THE VARIANCE OF THE PROJECT’S RETURN.

THE INDIRECT APPROACH:

GIVEN A CURRENT STOCK PRICE AND AN ANTICIPATED RANGE OF POSSIBLE STOCK PRICES AT SOME POINT IN THE FUTURE, WE CAN USE OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF STOCK RETURNS (WHICH IS LOGNORMAL) TO RELATE THE VARIANCE OF THE STOCK’S RATE OF RETURN TO THE RANGE OF POSSIBLE OUTCOMES FOR STOCK PRICE. TO USE THIS FORMULA, WE NEED THE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION OF STOCK PRICE AT THE TIME THE OPTION EXPIRES. TO CALCULATE THE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION, WE NEED THE EXPECTED STOCK PRICE AND THE STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE STOCK PRICE (BOTH OF THESE ARE MEASURED AT THE TIME THE OPTION EXPIRES). FOR THE REAL OPTION, WE NEED THE EXPECTED VALUE OF THE PROJECT’S CASH FLOWS AT THE DATE THE REAL OPTION EXPIRES, AND THE STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE PROJECT’S VALUE AT THE DATE THE REAL OPTION EXPIRES.

WE PREVIOUSLY CACULATED THE VALUE OF THE PROJECT AT THE TIME THE OPTION EXPIRES, AND WE CAN USE THIS TO CALCULATE THE EXPECTED VALUE AND THE STANDARD DEVIATION.

VALUE AT EXPIRATION

YEAR 1

HIGH $111.91

AVERAGE $74.61

LOW $37.30

EXPECTED VALUE =.3($111.91)+.4($74.61)+.3($37.3)

= $74.61.

sVALUE = [.3($111.91-$74.61)2 + .4($74.61-$74.61)2

+ .3($37.30-$74.61)2]1/2

= $28.90.

COEFFICENT OF VARIATION = CV = EXPECTED VALUE / sVALUE

CV = $74.61 / $28.90 = 0.39.

HERE IS A FORMULA FOR THE VARIANCE OF A STOCK’S RETURN, IF YOU KNOW THE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION OF THE EXPECTED STOCK PRICE AT SOME POINT IN THE FUTURE. THE CV SHOULD BE FOR THE ENTIRE PROJECT, INCLUDING ALL SCENARIOS:

s2 = LN[CV2 + 1]/T = LN[0.392 + 1]/1 = 14.2%.

NOW, WE PROCEED TO USE THE OPM:

V = $67.83[N(d1)] - $70e-(0.06)(1)[N(d2)].

d1 =

= 0.2641.

d2 = d1 - (0.142)0.5(1)0.5 = 0.2641 - 0.3768

= -0.1127.

N(d1) = N(0.2641) = 0.6041.

N(d2) = N(-0.1127) = 0.4551.

THEREFORE,

V = $67.83(0.6041) - $70e-0.06(0.4551)

= $10.98.

L. NOW SUPPOSE THE COST OF THE PROJECT IS $75 MILLION AND THE PROJECT CANNOT BE DELAYED. BUT IF TROPICAL SWEETS IMPLEMENTS THE PROJECT, THEN TROPICAL SWEETS WILL HAVE A GROWTH OPTION. IT WILL HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO REPLICATE THE ORIGINAL PROJECT AT THE END OF ITS LIFE. WHAT IS THE TOTAL EXPECTED NPV OF THE TWO PROJECTS IF BOTH ARE IMPLEMENTED?

ANSWER: SUPPOSE THE COST OF THE PROJECT IS $75 MILLION INSTEAD OF $70 MILLION, AND THERE IS NO OPTION TO WAIT.

NPV = PV OF FUTURE CASH FLOWS - COST

= $74.61 - $75 = -$0.39 MILLION.

THE PROJECT NOW LOOKS LIKE A LOSER. USING NPV ANALYSIS:

NPV = NPV OF ORIGINAL PROJECT + NPV OF REPLICATION PROJECT

= -$0.39 + -$0.39/(1+0.10)3

= -$0.39 + -$0.30 = -$0.69.

STILL LOOKS LIKE A LOSER, BUT YOU WILL ONLY IMPLEMENT PROJECT 2 IF DEMAND IS HIGH. WE MIGHT HAVE CHOSEN TO DISCOUNT THE COST OF THE REPLICATION PROJECT AT THE RISK-FREE RATE, AND THIS WOULD HAVE MADE THE NPV EVEN LOWER.

M. TROPICAL SWEETS WILL REPLICATE THE ORIGINAL PROJECT ONLY IF DEMAND IS HIGH. USING DECISION TREE ANALYSIS, ESTIMATE THE VALUE OF THE PROJECT WITH THE GROWTH OPTION.

ANSWER: THE FUTURE CASH FLOWS OF THE OPTIMAL DECISIONS ARE SHOWN BELOW. THE CASH FLOW IN YEAR 3 FOR THE HIGH DEMAND SCENARIO IS THE CASH FLOW FROM THE ORIGNAL PROJECT AND THE COST OF THE REPLCIATION PROJECT.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

HIGH -$75 $45 $45 $45 -$70 $45 $45 $45

AVERAGE -$75 $30 $30 $30 $0 $0 $0

LOW -$75 $15 $15 $15 $0 $0 $0

TO FIND THE NPV, WE DISCOUNT THE RISKY CASH FLOWS AT THE 10 PERCENT COST OF CAPITAL, AND THE NON-RISKY COST TO REPLICATE (I.E., THE $75 MILLION) AT THE RISK-FREE RATE.

NPV HIGH = -$75 + $45/1.10 + $45/1.102 + $45/1.103 + $45/1.104

+ $45/1.105 + $45/1.106 - $75/1.063

= $58.02

NPV AVERAGE = -$75 + $30/1.10 + $30/1.102 + $30/1.103 = -$0.39

NPV AVERAGE = -$75 + $15/1.10 + $15/1.102 + $15/1.103 = -$37.70

EXPECTED NPV = 0.3($58.02) + 0.4(-$0.39) + 0.3(-$37.70) = $5.94.

THUS, THE OPTION TO REPLICATE ADDS ENOUGH VALUE THAT THE PROJECT NOW HAS A POSITIVE NPV.

N. USE A FINANCIAL OPTION MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE VALUE OF THE GROWTH OPTION.

ANSWER: X = EXERCISE PRICE = COST OF IMPLEMENT PROJECT = $75 MILLION.

KRF = RISK-FREE RATE = 6%.

T = TIME TO MATURITY = 3 YEARS.

P = CURRENT PRICE OF STOCK = CURRENT VALUE OF THE PROJECT’S FUTURE CASH FLOWS.

s2 = VARIANCE OF STOCK RETURN = VARIANCE OF PROJECT’S RATE OF RETURN.

WE EXPLAIN HOW TO CALCULATE P AND s2 BELOW.

STEP 1: FIND THE VALUE OF ALL CASH FLOWS BEYOND THE EXERCISE DATE DISCOUNTED BACK TO THE EXERCISE DATE. HERE IS THE TIME LINE. THE EXERCISE DATE IS YEAR 1, SO WE DISCOUNT ALL FUTURE CASH FLOWS BACK TO YEAR 3.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

HIGH $45 $45 $45

AVERAGE $30 $30 $30

LOW $15 $15 $15

HIGH: PV3 = $45/1.10 + $45/1.102 + $45/1.103 = $111.91

AVERAGE: PV3 = $30/1.10 + $30/1.102 + $30/1.103 = $74.61

LOW: PV3 = $15/1.10 + $15/1.102 + $15/1.103 = $37.30

THE CURRENT EXPECTED PRESENT VALUE, P, IS:

P = 0.3[$111.91/1.13] + 0.4[$74.61/1.13] + 0.3[$37.30/1.13] = $56.05.

DIRECT APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING s2:

FROM OUR PREVIOUS ANALYSIS, WE KNOW THE CURRENT VALUE OF THE PROJECT AND THE VALUE FOR EACH SCENARIO AT THE TIME THE OPTION EXPIRES (YEAR 3). HERE IS THE TIME LINE:

CURRENT VALUE VALUE AT EXPIRATION

YEAR 0 YEAR 3

HIGH $56.02 $111.91

AVERAGE $56.02 $74.61

LOW $56.02 $37.30

THE ANNUAL RATE OF RETURN IS:

HIGH: RETURN = ($111.91/$56.02)(1/3) – 1 = 25.9%.

HIGH: AVERAGE = ($74.61/$56.02)(1/3) – 1 = 10%.

HIGH: RETURN = ($37.30/$56.02)(1/3) – 1 = -12.7%.

EXPECTED RETURN = 0.3(0.259) + 0.4(0.10) + 0.3(-0.127)

= 8.0%.

s2 = 0.3(0..259-0.08)2 + 0.4(0.10-0.08)2 + 0.3(-0.127-0.08)2

= 0.182 = 2.3%.

THIS IS LOWER THAN THE VARIANCE FOUND FOR THE PREVIOUS OPTION BECAUSE THE DISPERSION OF CASH FLOWS FOR THE REPLICATION PROJECT IS THE SAME AS FOR THE ORIGINAL, EVEN THOUGH THE REPLICATION OCCURS MUCH LATER. THEREFORE, THE RATE OF RETURN FOR THE REPLICATION IS LESS VOLATILE. WE DO SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS LATER.

THE INDIRECT APPROACH:

FIRST, FIND THE COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION FOR THE VALUE OF THE PROJECT AT THE TIME THE OPTION EXPIRES (YEAR 3).

WE PREVIOUSLY CACULATED THE VALUE OF THE PROJECT AT THE TIME THE OPTION EXPIRES, AND WE CAN USE THIS TO CALCULATE THE EXPECTED VALUE AND THE STANDARD DEVIATION.

VALUE AT EXPIRATION

YEAR 3

HIGH $111.91

AVERAGE $74.61

LOW $37.30

EXPECTED VALUE =.3($111.91)+.4($74.61)+.3($37.3)

= $74.61.

sVALUE = [.3($111.91-$74.61)2 + .4($74.61-$74.61)2

+ .3($37.30-$74.61)2]1/2

= $28.90.

COEFFICENT OF VARIATION = CV = EXPECTED VALUE / sVALUE

CV = $74.61 / $28.90 = 0.39.

TO FIND THE VARIANCE OF THE PROJECT’S RATE OR RETURN, WE USE THE FORMUALA BELOW:

s2 = LN[CV2 + 1]/T = LN[0.392 + 1]/3 = 4.7%.

NOW, WE PROCEED TO USE THE OPM:

V = $56.06[N(d1)] - $75e-(0.06)(3)[N(d2)].

d1 =

= -0.1085.

d2 = d1 - (0.047)0.5(3)0.5 = -.1085 - 0.3755

= -0.4840.

N(d1) = N(-0.1080) = 0.4568.

N(d2) = N(-0.4835) = 0.3142.

THEREFORE,

V = $56.06(0.4568) - $75e-(0.06)(3)(0.3142)

= $5.92.

TOTAL VALUE = NPV OF PROJECT 1 + VALUE OF GROWTH OPTION

=-$0.39 + $5.92

= $5.5 MILLION

O. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE VALUE OF THE GROWTH OPTION IF THE VARIANCE OF THE PROJECT’S RETURN IS 14.2 PERCENT? WHAT IF IT IS 50 PERCENT? HOW MIGHT THIS EXPLAIN THE HIGH VALUATIONS OF MANY DOT.COM COMPANIES?

ANSWER: IF RISK, DEFINED BY s2, GOES UP, THEN VALUE OF GROWTH OPTION GOES UP (SEE THE FILE CH 15 MINI CASE.XLS FOR CALCULATIONS):

s2 = 4.7%, OPTION VALUE = $5.92

s2 = 14.2%, OPTION VALUE = $12.10

s2 = 50%, OPTION VALUE = $24.09

IF THE FUTURE PROFITABILITY OF DOT.COM COMPANIES IS VERY VOLATILE (I.E., THERE IS THE POTENTIAL FOR VERY HIGH PROFITS), THEN A COMPANY WITH A REAL OPTION ON THOSE PROFITS MIGHT HAVE A VERY HIGH VALUE FOR ITS GROWTH OPTION.