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Addonizio, Hugh, 55
Arrington on, 2
Alston, D., 162
black challenger elections in, 51, 52,
American National Election Study
(ANES) surveys, 12, 34, 74
black incumbency elections in, 68,
Arrington, Richard, Jr., 2, 52, 57, 59,
68, 100
black mayoral representation in,
Asian American leadership, 121,
Bishop, Sanford, 145
black challenger elections in, 46, 52,
black challenger elections
black incumbency elections
black incumbency elections in, 44
compared to, 41, 67“8
black mayoral leadership in, 31, 83
candidate quality in, 54“5, 127
change in attitudes in, 67
for Congress, 144
Atlantic City, 55
conventional political factors and,
Austin, 155
authority of blacks, and white
fear in, 15“17, 105“9, 125“8
individual voices in, 58“60
across cities, 98
information and fear in, 15“17,
incumbents, 27; in Congress, 142“3,
105“9, 125“8
outcome of, 44
information and, 84, 93“4
previous elections and, 57
majority white cities and, 28
race in, 51“4
stereotypes and, 17“18
transformation of white vote in,
Bailey, Donn, 130
voter turnout at, 70
Baker, James, 59
white support in, 18
Baltimore, 51, 149, 150
See also Bradley, Tom; Washington,
Barry, Marion, 26
Berriozabal, Maria, 155


Box, Charles, 53
black community
Bradley, Tom
expectations of black leadership in,
on accomplishments, 119
campaigns of, 105, 108“9, 164
size and resources of, 42, 84
election and tenure of, 104, 113
white views of, 75“6, 78
as incumbent, 114“16
black incumbency elections
information model and, 109
black challenger elections and, 41,
newspaper coverage of, 116“17
policy agenda of, 109“11
candidate quality in, 61, 138
views of, 67, 117“22
change in white behavior and, 45“6
white prosperity and, 111“12
across cities, 101“2
white support and,30, 43“4, 112“14
fear in, 48“9, 131, 132“3
Brooke, Edward, 144
all mayors in, 46“8
Brown, Jerry, 149
prejudice model and, 22
Brown, Lee, 62
race in, 62, 72
Burris, Roland, 134
record in of¬ce and, 63“6
Byrne, Jane, 99, 133, 137
representativeness of data on, 42
voter turnout and, 45, 48
white learning and, 48“50, 66“8
deracialization of, 16, 53“4, 108“9,
white opposition in, 44“5
white support in, 18, 30“1, 43“4,
media in, 16, 67“8, 108
racialization of, 49“50, 52“3, 98,
See also Bradley, Tom; Washington,
126“7, 137“8, 172
spending on, 50, 138, 173
black representation, 1“2
tone of, 70“1, 98“100
and African Americans, 147“50
candidate quality, 50, 54“5, 61, 127,
and Asian American and Latino
138, 173
representation, 151“3
Carson, Julia, 6
changes in perceptions of, 78
case studies, 182“4. See also Bradley,
concerns about, 106, 125“8
Tom; Chicago; Los Angeles;
effects of, 159
Washington, Harold
expectations of, 26, 65, 147“8
challengers, see black challenger
increasing, 163“5, 166
information effects of, 3“4
Charlotte, 45, 57
interracial contact and, 161“2
at mayoral level, 10“11
black incumbency elections in, 62
polarizing effect of, 88
black mayoral leadership in, 123“5
possibilities of, 14
conventional politics and, 56,
research questions regarding, 34
white assessment of, 19“21
economy of, under black leadership,
white community and, 159“61
white information about, 18“19
fear in, 58, 59
and white learning, 5“9, 25“30
party allegiances and, 57
white reaction to, 2“3
racialized campaigns in, 137“8
white support and, 22
racialized voting in, 133“5
See also minority representation
selection criteria and, 183
Bositis, David, 149
Index 215

Filipini, Elmer, 133
tone of campaign in, 71
Flint, 55
white backlash model and, 31
See also Washington, Harold
Gantt, Harvey, 45, 53, 57, 71
Cisneros, Henry, 152
Garcia, Gus, 155
city councils, 127“8, 129
Gardner, Joseph, 134
civil rights movement, 24
Gary, 149, 150
Cleaver, Emmanuel, 100
gender transitions, 157
Cleveland, 57, 67, 100, 150
Gibson, Kenneth, 56, 59
congressional elections, 31, 142“5,
Goode, Wilson, 55, 56, 99
Grimshaw, Jackie, 137
control, see authority of blacks and
Giuliani, Rudy, 93
white learning

Hartford, 139, 155
Daley, Richard M., 133
Helms, Jessie, 71
Dallas, 139, 183
Herenton, Willie, 92
data sets, 171“5
Higgs, Otis, 92
data sources, 174
housing market, 64“5
Davis, Danny, 134
Houston, 62, 139, 183
democracy, transition to, 156
Democrats, 26, 85“9
immigration, 139
demographics, 95“7, 98“100, 107,
incumbents, see black incumbency
120, 172, 185, 188
Denver, 154
Independents, 87
descriptive representation, 8“9
individual voices, 58“60, 105, 118
Des Ruisseaux, Jo Ann, 105
information model of voting behavior,
Detroit, 25, 46, 52, 56, 83, 148
5“9, 15
Dinkins, David, 59, 92“3
African American voters and,
division in black vote, 149
authority of blacks, and white
Eisinger, Peter, 30, 46, 52
learning, and, 84, 93“4
electoral resources, 44
black challenger elections and,
empirical strategy, 9“10, 32“7, 65. See
15“17, 105“9, 125“8
also variables
black incumbency and, 17“21
endorsements, 50, 55“6, 61, 173
black representation and, 3“4,
Epton, Bernard, 55, 56, 57, 126, 127
Evans, Tim, 134
Bradley and, 109
exit poll data, 59
Chicago and, 124“5, 139
congressional elections and, 142“6
credibility of information and, 5, 17
in black challenger elections, 15“17,
Latino and Asian American
105“9, 125“8
leadership and, 150“6
in black incumbency elections,
Los Angeles and, 119“20
48“9, 131, 132“3
minority white cities and, 28
measures of, 51“2, 74“5
political transitions and, 141“2
feeling thermometer, 75
politics and, 7“8
Ferraro, John, 116
predictions of, 32“3, 48, 51
Ferre, Maurice, 154

majority white cities, 28“9, 47, 94, 95,
information model of voting (cont.)
racially balanced cities and, 29
Mayoral Careers Dataset, 175
recommendations based on, 163“6
research supporting, 30, 38“9, 89
Asian American, 155“6
transitions around world and,
black, 10“11, 36
black incumbent elections for, 47
interracial contact, 84, 100, 161“2
elections for, 96
interracial contact hypothesis, 15
Latino, 153“5
in majority black cities, 148“9
Jackson, Jesse, 126, 144
perceptions of, 19
Jackson, Maynard, 71, 83
performance models of approval,
Joint Center for Political and
Economic Studies data set, 171,
power of, 25
reelection rates over time, 47
spending by, 63
Kansas City, 100
white experience with black, 89“90
Kennedy, John F., 157
McDonald, Laughlin, 144
Kim, Jay C., 152
McKinney, Cynthia, 145
King, Scott, 149
media in campaigns, 16, 67“8,
Latino leadership
Memphis, 51, 66, 91“2, 149, 184
differences from black leadership,
Miami, 151, 154
migration, racial, 24
mayoral elections, 153“5
Milner, Thirman, 52, 67
overview of, 150“6
Mineta, Norman, 154
similarities to black leadership,
minority representation, 6, 8“9. See
also Asian American leadership;
white learning and, 153“6
black representation; Latino
Latino population, 6, 121
Lee, Barbara, 6
minority white cities, 28, 94, 95, 100,
Locke, Gary, 154, 156
Los Angeles
Mollenkopf, John, 92
black mayoral leadership in, 103“5
Morial, Ernest, 55
campaigns in, 71
Moseley-Braun, Carol, 134
demographics of, 107, 120
Murphy, Mark, 118
opinions expressed in, 59, 67
public opinion polls, 105, 184“8
National Opinion Research Center,
race relations in, 112, 120“1
selection criteria and, 183
National Roster of Black Elected
white learning in, 112
Of¬cials, 74
See also Bradley, Tom
neighborhood integration, 59, 125
Louisiana, 23
Newark, 51, 55, 56, 59, 67, 71
Love, Eulia, 110
New Haven, 62
New Orleans, 44, 51, 55
Majerczyk, Aloysius, 59
New York City, 59, 62, 91, 92“3, 139,
majority black cities, see minority
white cities
Index 217

study of, 162
Oakland, 149
in urban areas, 149“50
Obama, Barak, 134
See also campaigns, deracialization
O™Malley, Martin, 149
of, racialization of
opinion, aggregate compared to
race relations, future of, 166“7
individual, 21
racial context and interracial
dynamics, 100
partisanship, 26, 57“8, 85“9, 107,
racially balanced cities
185, 187. See also Democrats;
black leadership and, 94
control in, 101
Pena, Federico, 154
differences in, 124
Perez, Eddie, 155
future of elections in, 139“40
performance models of mayoral
redistricting decisions and, 165“6
approval, 65
threat and, 53
Pettigrew, T., 162
tone of campaigns in, 98“100
Philadelphia, 55, 56, 99, 139, 149
white learning and, 29“30
Pincham, Eugene, 134
white support in, 96
policy platform, 56, 153
See also Chicago
racial resentment scale, 76
information and, 7“8
record in of¬ce, 63“6, 107, 185, 187
race and, 6“7, 22, 39“41, 114“17,
redistribution of resources, 25, 63, 66,
redistricting decisions, 102, 165“6
redistricting decisions, 102, 165“6
role of, in lives of Americans,
Reich, Kenneth, 108
religious transitions, 157
See also partisanship
Republicans, 26, 85“9
pollsters and Bradley, 119
Rice, Norm, 57, 100
power, see authority of blacks, and
Rich, Wilbur, 52
white learning
Rizzo, Frank, 100
prejudice, 21, 27, 185, 186
Robbins, Alan, 114“15
prejudice model of voting behavior, 4,
Rush, Bobby, 134
21“3, 31, 33, 40, 87
public opinion polls, 105, 130“1,
San Antonio, 151, 152, 154, 155
San Bernardino, 155
San Francisco, 139
Sawyer, Eugene, 133, 134
in black challenger elections, 51“4
Schwada, Thomas, 119
in black incumbency elections,
Scott, Robert, 6
48“9, 62, 72
Seattle, 57, 100
in congressional elections, 145“6
selection bias, 35“7
context of, 53
selection criteria, 42
as heuristic, 16
Sharp, James, 55
in Los Angeles, 120“1
social dominance theory, 23, 33
political choice and, 6“7
Sonenshein, Raphael, 110, 119
politics and, 6“7, 22, 39“41,
South Africa, 156
114“17, 160
Starks, Robert, 7
prejudice model of voting behavior
Stokes, Carl, 67, 100
and, 21“3

white backlash model of, 4, 23“4,
Suarez, Xavier, 154
support for black candidates over
See also information model of
time, 69“72, 81“5, 146
voting behavior; prejudice model
of voting behavior
Thatcher, Margaret, 157
Vrdolyak, Ed, 71, 99, 133, 138
Thernstrom, Abigail, 7, 162
threat, racial, see fear
Wallace, George, 71
tipping point, racial, 29
Washington (state), 156
tone of white candidate™s campaign,
Washington, D.C., 10, 26
70“1, 98“100
Washington, Harold
turnout, see voter turnout
af¬rmative action and, 130
two-stage least-squares analysis, 177
campaign of, 126, 131, 137“8; and
racialization, 52, 99 126, 131,
uncertainty, electoral, 4, 15“17, 59
Usry, James, 55
city council and, 127“8, 129
death of, 133“5
Valles, Judith, 155
Epton and, 56
experience of, 54
Bradley approval, 186
as incumbent, 130“3
campaign spending, 173
information provided by tenure of,
candidate quality, 173
change in per capita income, 174
resources of, 138
coding and descriptive statistics,
white backlash model and, 31
white opposition to, 127, 131“2
demographics, 185, 188
Watson, Sharon, 62
endorsements, 173
Wheat, Alan, 53
incumbent record, 185, 187
white attitudes, 78“80
political ideology, 185, 187
Asian American and Latino
racial, 172, 184, 185, 186
leadership and, 153“6
redistributive spending, 174
assessment of, 73“8
vote, 171“2, 184
black mayoral leadership and, 80“1,
voter turnout, 171“2, 174
Villaraigosa, Antonio, 103“21, 155
changes over time in, 81“5, 159“61
violence, racial, 24
comparison of, 78
voter turnout
measurement of, 77
in black challenger elections, 70
partisanship and, 85“9
in black incumbency elections, 45,
See also fear; uncertainty; white
48, 148
in Chicago, 127“8, 129
white backlash model of voting
in Los Angeles, 114
behavior, 4, 23“4, 31
racial demographics and, 96
white ¬‚ight, 68“9, 77
as variable, 171“2, 174
white learning, 73
white ¬‚ight and, 68“9
across cities, 27“30, 91“4
voting behavior, 39“41
across individuals, 26“7
empirical strategy and, 32
across leaders, 25“6
in Los Angeles black challenger
black incumbency elections and,
election, 105“8
48“50, 66“8
testing explanations of, 38“9
Index 219

Wilder, Douglas, 6, 53
conditions for occurrence of, 141
Wilmington, 59
from distance, 78, 164
Woo, Michael, 103“21, 152
importance of, 5“9
in Los Angeles, 112
Yorty, Sam, 71, 106, 107, 108, 109,
as process, 103“21
views of black community and,
Young, Coleman, 25, 52, 56, 83, 148


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