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A synchronic dictionary should also show the distribution of every word. It has been traditionally done by labelling words as belonging to a certain part of speech, and by noting some special cases of grammatically or lexically bound meanings. Thus, the word spin is labelled in "The Concise Oxford Dictionary" as v.t. & i., which gives a general idea of its distribution; its various senses are shown in connection with words that may serve as subject or object, e. g.: "2. (of spider, silkworm, etc.) make (web, gossamer, cocoon, or abs.) by extrusion of fine viscous thread ... 10. spun glass (spun when heated into filaments that remain pliant when cold); spun gold, silver (gold, silver thread prepared for weaving ...)." This technique is gradually being improved upon, and compilers strive to provide more detailed information on these points. "The Advanced Learner's Dictionary ..." by A.S. Hornby, E.V. Gatenby and H. Wakefield supplies information on the syntactical distribution of each verb. In their "Notes on Syntax" the compilers state that one who is learning English as a foreign language is apt to form sentences by analogy, which at times may lead him into error. For instance, the student must be warned against taking the use of the verb tell in the sentence Please tell me the meaning as a model for the word explain, because *Please, explain me the meaning would be ungrammatical. For this purpose they provide a table of 25 verb patterns and supply the numerical indications in each verb entry. This gives the student the necessary guidance. Indications are also supplied as to which nouns and which semantic varieties of nouns may be used in the plural. This helps the student to avoid mistakes like *interesting informations.
Many dictionaries indicate the different stylistic levels to which the words belong: colloquial, technical, poetical, rhetorical, archaic, familiar, vulgar or slang, and their expressive colouring: emphatic, ironical,
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diminutive, facetious. This is important, because a mere definition does not show these data. There is always a difference in style between the dictionary word and its definition. The word digs is a slang word but its definition 'lodgings' is not. Giving these data modern dictionary-makers strive to indicate the nature of the context in which the word may occur. The problem is also relevant for bilingual dictionaries and is carefully presented in the "New English-Russian Dictionary" edited by I.R. Galperin.
A third group of lexicographic problems is the problem of definitions in a unilingual dictionary. The explanation of meaning may be achieved by a group of synonyms which together give a fairly general idea; but one synonym is never sufficient for the purpose, because no absolute synonyms exist. Besides, if synonyms are the only type of explanation used, the reader will be placed in a vicious circle of synonymic references, with not a single word actually explained. Definitions serve the purpose much better. These are of two main types. If they are only concerned with words as speech material, the definition is called linguistic. If they are concerned with things for which the words are names, they are termed encyclopaedic. American dictionaries are for the most part traditionally encyclopaedic, which accounts for so much attention paid to graphic illustration. They furnish their readers with far more information about facts and things than their British counterparts, which are more linguistic and more fundamentally occupied with purely lexical data (as contrasted to r e a 1 i a), with the grammatical properties of words, their components, their stylistic features, etc. Opinions differ upon the optimum proportion of linguistic and encyclopaedic material. Very interesting considerations on this subject are due to Alf Sommerfeldt. He thinks that definitions must be based on the fact that the meanings of words render complex notions which may be analysed (cf. componental analysis) into several elements rendered by other words. He emphasises, for instance, that the word pedestrian is more aptly defined as 'a person who goes or travels on foot' than as 'one who goes or travels on foot'. The remark appears valuable, because a definition of this type shows the lexico-grammatical type to which the word belongs and consequently its distribution. It also helps to reveal the system of the vocabulary. Much too often, however, one sees in dictionaries no attention paid to the difference in distribution between the defined and the defining word.
The meaning of the word may be also explained by examples, i.e. contextually. The term and its definition are here fused. For example, diagonal is explained by the following context where only this term can occur: A square has two diagonals, and each of them divides the square into two right-angled isosceles triangles. Very often this type can be changed into a standard form, i.e. A diagonal is one of the two lines ..., etc.
One more problem is the problem of whether all entries should be defined or whether it is possible to have the so-called "run-ons" for derivative words in which the root-form is readily recognised (such as absolutely or resolutely). In fact, whereas resolutely may be conveniently given as a -ly run-on after resolute, there is a meaning problem for absolutely. One must take into consideration that in colloquial speech absolutely means 'quite so', 'yes' which cannot be deduced from the meaning of the corresponding adjective.
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§ 15.3 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN LEXICOGRAPHY
Although, as we have seen from the preceding paragraph, there is as yet no coherent doctrine in English lexicography, its richness and variety are everywhere admitted and appreciated. Its history is in its way one of the most remarkable developments in linguistics, and is therefore worthy of special attention. In the following pages a short outline of its various phases is given.
A need for a dictionary or glossary has been felt in the cultural growth of many civilised peoples at a fairly early period. The history of dictionary-making for the English language goes as far back as the Old English period where its first traces are found in the form of glosses of religious books with interlinear translation from Latin. Regular bilingual English-Latin dictionaries were already in existence in the 15th century.
The unilingual dictionary is a comparatively recent type. The first unilingual English dictionary, explaining words by English equivalents, appeared in 1604. It was meant to explain difficult words occurring in books. Its title was "A Table Alphabeticall, containing and teaching the true writing and understanding of hard usuall English words borrowed from the Hebrew, Greeke, Latine or French". The little volume of 120 pages explaining about 3000 words was compiled by one Robert Cawdrey, a schoolmaster. Other books followed, each longer than the preceding one. The first attempt at a dictionary including all the words of the language, not only the difficult ones, was made by Nathaniel Bailey who in 1721 published the first edition of his "Universal Etymological English Dictionary". He was the first to include pronunciation and etymology.
Big explanatory dictionaries were created in France and Italy before they appeared for the English language. Learned academies on the continent had been established to preserve the purity of their respective languages. This was also the purpose of Dr Samuel Johnson's famous Dictionary published in 1755.1 The idea of purity involved a tendency to oppose change, and S. Johnson's Dictionary was meant to establish the English language in its classical form, to preserve it in all its glory as used by J. Dryden, A. Pope, J. Addison and their contemporaries. In conformity with the social order of his time, S. Johnson attempted to "fix" and regulate English. This was the period of much discussion about the necessity of "purifying" and "fixing" English, and S. Johnson wrote that every change was undesirable, even a change for the best. When his work was accomplished, however, he had to admit he had been wrong and confessed in his preface that "no dictionary of a living tongue can ever be perfect, since while it is hastening to publication, some
1 Johnson, Samuel. A Dictionary of the English Language in Which the Words are Deduced from Their Originals and Illustrated in Their General Significations by Examples from the Best Writers: In 2 vols. London, 1775.
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words are budding and some falling away". The most important innovation of S. Johnson's Dictionary was the introduction of illustrations of the meanings of the words "by examples from the best writers", as had been done before him in the dictionary of the French Academy. Since then such illustrations have become a "sine qua non" in lexicography; S. Johnson, however, only mentioned the authors and never gave any specific references for his quotations. Most probably he reproduced some of his quotations from memory, not always very exactly, which would have been unthinkable in modern lexicology. The definitions he gave were often very ingenious. He was called "a skilful definer", but sometimes he preferred to give way to sarcasm or humour and did not hesitate to be partial in his definitions. The epithet he gave to lexicographer, for instance, is famous even in our time: a lexicographer was 'a writer of dictionaries, a harmless drudge ...'. The dictionary dealt with separate words only, almost no set expressions were entered. Pronunciation was not marked, because S. Johnson was keenly aware of the wide variety of the English pronunciation and thought it impossible to set up a standard there; he paid attention only to those aspects of vocabulary where he believed he could improve linguistic usage. S. Johnson's influence was tremendous. He remained the unquestionable authority on style and diction for more than 75 years. The result was a lofty bookish style which received the name of "Johnsonian" or "Johnsonese".
As to pronunciation, attention was turned to it somewhat later. A pronouncing dictionary that must be mentioned first was published in 1780 by Thomas Sheridan, grandfather of the great dramatist. In 1791 appeared "The Critical Pronouncing Dictionary and Expositor of the English Language" by John Walker, an actor. The vogue of this second dictionary was very great, and in later publications Walker's pronunciations were inserted into S. Johnson's text - a further step to a unilingual dictionary in its present-day form.
The Golden Age of English lexicography began in the last quarter of the 19th century when the English Philological Society started work on compiling what is now known as "The Oxford English Dictionary" (OED), but was originally named "New English Dictionary on Historical Principles". It is still occasionally referred to as NED.
The purpose of this monumental work is to trace the development of English words from their form in Old English, and if they were not found in Old English, to show when they were introduced into the language, and also to show the development of each meaning and its historical relation to other meanings of the same word. For words and meanings which have become obsolete the date of the latest occurrence is given. All this is done by means of dated quotations ranging from the oldest to recent appearances of the words in question. The English of G. Chaucer, of the "Bible" and of W. Shakespeare is given as much attention as that of the most modern authors. The dictionary includes spellings, pronunciations and detailed etymologies. The completion of the work required more than 75 years. The result is a kind of encyclopaedia of language used not only for reference purposes but also as a basis for lexicological research.
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The lexicographic concept here is very different from the prescriptive tradition of Dr S. Johnson: the lexicographer is the objective recorder of the language. The purpose of OED, as stated by its editors, has nothing to do with prescription or proscription of any kind.
The conception of this new type of dictionary was born in a discussion at the English Philological Society. It was suggested by Frederick Furnivall, later its second titular editor, to Richard Trench, the author of the first book on lexicology of the English language. Richard Trench read before the society his paper "On Some Deficiencies in our English Dictionaries", and that was how the big enterprise was started. At once the Philological Society set to work to gather the material, volunteers offered to help by collecting quotations. Dictionary-making became a sort of national enterprise. A special committee prepared a list of books to be read and assigned them to the volunteers, sending them also special standard slips for quotations. By 1881 the number of readers was 800, and they sent in many thousands of slips. The tremendous amount of work done by these volunteers testifies to the keen interest the English take in their language.
The first part of the Dictionary appeared in 1884 and the last in 1928. Later it was issued in twelve volumes and in order to accommodate new words a three volume Supplement was issued in 1933. These volumes were revised in the seventies. Nearly all the material of the original Supplement was retained and a large body of the most recent accessions to the English language added.
The principles, structure and scope of "The Oxford English Dictionary", its merits and demerits are discussed in the most comprehensive treaty by L.V. Malakhovsky. Its prestige is enormous. It is considered superior to corresponding major dictionaries for other languages. The Oxford University Press published different abridged versions. "The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles" formerly appeared in two volumes, now printed on thinner paper it is bound in one volume of 2,538 pages. It differs from the complete edition in that it contains a smaller number of quotations. It keeps to all the main principles of historical presentation and covers not only the current literary and colloquial English but also its previous stages. Words are defined and illustrated with key quotations.
"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English" was first published in 1911, i.e. before the work on the main version was completed. It is not a historical dictionary but one of current usage. A still shorter form is "The Pocket Oxford Dictionary".
Another big dictionary, also created by joined effort of enthusiasts, is Joseph Wright's "English Dialect Dictionary". Before this dictionary could be started upon, a thorough study of English dialects had to be completed. With this aim in view W.W. Skeat, famous for his "Etymological English Dictionary" founded the English Dialect Society as far back as 1873. Dialects are of great importance for the historical study of the language. In the 19th century they were very pronounced though now they are almost disappearing. The Society existed till 1896 and issued 80 publications, mostly monographs.
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Curiously enough, the first American dictionary of the English language was compiled by a man whose name was also Samuel Johnson. Samuel Johnson Jr., a Connecticut schoolmaster, published in 1798 a small book entitled "A School Dictionary". This book was followed in 1800 by another dictionary by the same author, which showed already some signs of Americanisation. It included, for instance, words like tomahawk and wampum, borrowed into English from the Indian languages. It was Noah Webster, universally considered to be the father of American lexicography, who emphatically broke away from English idiom, and embodied in his book the specifically American usage of his time. His great work, "The American Dictionary of the English Language", appeared in two volumes in 1828 and later sustained numerous revised and enlarged editions. In many respects N. Webster follows the lead of Dr S. Johnson (the British lexicographer). But he has also improved and corrected many of S. Johnson's etymologies and his definitions are often more exact. N. Webster attempted to simplify the spelling and pronunciation that were current in the USA of the period. He devoted many years to the collection of words and the preparation of more accurate definitions.
N. Webster realised the importance of language for the development of a nation, and devoted his energy to giving the American English the status of an independent language, distinct from British English. At that time the idea was progressive as it helped the unification of separate states into one federation. The tendency became reactionary later on, when some modern linguists like H. Mencken shaped it into the theory of a separate American language, not only different from British English, but surpassing it in efficiency and therefore deserving to dominate and supersede all the languages of the world. Even if we keep within purely linguistic or purely lexical concepts, we shall readily see that the difference is not so great as to warrant American English the rank of a separate language, not a variant of English (see p. 265).
The set of morphemes is the same. Some words have acquired a new meaning on American soil and this meaning has or has not penetrated into British English. Other words kept their earlier meanings that are obsolete and not used in Great Britain. As civilisation progressed different names were given to new inventions on either side of the Atlantic. Words were borrowed from different Indian languages and from Spanish. All these had to be recorded in a dictionary and so accounted for the existence of specific American lexicography. The world of today with its ever-growing efficiency and intensity of communication and personal contacts, with its press, radio and television creates conditions which tend to foster not an isolation of dialects and variants but, on the contrary, their mutual penetration and integration.
Later on, the title "International Dictionary of the English Language" was adopted, and in the latest edition not Americanisms but words not used in America (Britishisms) are marked off.
N. Webster's dictionary enjoyed great popularity from its first editions. This popularity was due not only to the accuracy and clarity of definitions but also to the richness of additional information of encyclopaedic
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character, which had become a tradition in American lexicography. As a dictionary N. Webster's book aims to treat the entire vocabulary of the language providing definitions, pronunciation and etymology. As an encyclopaedia it gives explanations about things named, including scientific and technical subjects. It does so more concisely than a full-scale encyclopaedia, but it is worthy of note that the definitions are as a rule up-to-date and rigorous scientifically.
Soon after N. Webster's death two printers and booksellers of Massachusetts, George and Charles Merriam, secured the rights of his dictionary from his family and started the publication of revised single volume editions under the name "Merriam-Webster". The staff working for the modern editions is a big institution numbering hundreds of specialists in different branches of human activity.
It is important to note that the name "Webster" may be attached for publicity's sake by anyone to any dictionary. Many publishers concerned with their profits have taken this opportunity to issue dictionaries called "Webster's". Some of the books so named are cheaply-made reprints of old editions, others are said to be entirely new works. The practice of advertising by coupling N. Webster's name to a dictionary which has no connection with him, continues up to the present day.
A complete revision of N. Webster's dictionary is achieved with a certain degree of regularity. The recent "Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language" has called forth much comment, both favourable and unfavourable. It has been greatly changed as compared with the previous edition, in word selection as well as in other matters. The emphasis is on the present-day state of the language. The number of illustrative quotations is increased. To accommodate the great number of new words and meanings without increasing the bulk of the volume, the editors excluded much encyclopaedic material.
The other great American dictionaries are the "Century Dictionary", first completed in 1891; "Funk and Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary", first completed in 1895; the "Random House Dictionary of the English Language", completed in 1967; "The Heritage Illustrated Dictionary of the English Language", first published in 1969, and C.L. Barnhart's et al. "The World Book Dictionary" presenting a synchronic review of the language in the 20th century. The first three continue to appear in variously named subsequent editions including abridged versions. Many small handy popular dictionaries for office, school and home use are prepared to meet the demand in reference books on spelling, pronunciation, meaning and usage.
An adequate idea of the dictionaries cannot be formed from a mere description and it is no substitute for actually using them. To conclude we would like to mention that for a specialist in linguistics and a teacher of foreign languages systematic work with a good dictionary in conjunction with his reading is an absolute necessity.

CONCLUSION
The present book has treated the specific features of the English word as a structure, both on the morphemic and semantic levels, and dealt with the English vocabulary as an adaptive system of contrasting and interrelated elements. The presentation of these is conceived on the basis of the theory of oppositions as initiated by N.S. Trubetzkoy and is described, partly at least, in set-theoretical terms.
The classical book on the theory of oppositions is the posthumous treatise by N.S. Trubetzkoy "Grundzuge der Phonologie". The full significance and value of this work are now being realised and appreciated both in Soviet linguistics and abroad. Nevertheless, application of the theory of oppositions to linguistic analysis on levels other than that of phonology is far from being complete. One need hardly say that the present volume does not attempt to be definitive in its treatment of oppositions for lexicological description: quite considerable amount of research has already been done in some directions and very little in many others. Many points remain to be elucidated by future patient study and by collecting reliable factual evidence on which more general conclusions may then be built.
The special interest of contemporary science in methods of linguistic research extends over a period of about thirty years. The present status of principles and techniques in lexicology, although still far from satisfactory, shows considerable progress and an intense development.
The main procedures in use have been described in connection with the subject-matter they serve to investigate. They are the componential analysis, the contextological and valency analysis, analysis into immediate constituents, explanatory transformations based on dictionary definitions and different types of semantic oppositions helping to describe the vocabulary system.
Each of these techniques viewed separately has its limitations but taken together they complete one another, so that each successive procedure may prove helpful where the previous one has failed. We have considered these devices time and again in discussing separate aspects of the vocabulary system. All these are formalised methods in the sense that they replace the original words in the linguistic material sampled for analysis by symbols that can be discussed without reference to the particular elements they stand for, and then state precise rules for the combination and transformation of formulas thus obtained.
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It must be emphatically stressed that although the synchronic and diachronic treatments are set apart, and the focal point of interest is the present state of the English vocabulary, these two aspects are not divorced, and the constant development of the whole system is always kept in mind. It must be fully realised that the separation of the two aspects is only an abstraction necessary for heuristic purposes. Secondly, structural methods demand a rigorous separation of levels and a study of language as an autonomous system. This dogmatic thesis placed a burden upon research. In present-day Soviet linguistics the interrelation between different levels as well as between language and extralinguistic reality is taken as all-important.
Finally, what is especially important, language is a social phenomenon, the language of any society is an integral part of the culture and social life of this society, words recognised within the vocabulary of the language are that part of the language on which the influence of extra-linguistic factors tells in the first place. Much of the semantic incommensurability that exists between languages can be accounted for in terms of social and cultural differences.
Sociolinguistics which is now making great progress is concerned with linguistic differences and with the actual performances of individuals as members of specific speech communities. It concentrates on the correlation of linguistic features with values and attitudes in social life with the status of speakers and listeners in social network. It deals with coexistence in the same individual or the same group of speakers of several linguistic codes, resorted to according to language-use conventions of society, i.e. a more prestigious formal and conservative code is used for official purposes, the other for spontaneous informal conversation. As sociolinguistics is still in its infancy it was possible to include in the present book only a few glimpses of this new branch.
Recent years in" Soviet linguistics have undoubtedly seen great progress in lexicology coming from various schools with various aims and methods. It is outside the scope of the present book to reflect them all, it is to be hoped, however, that the student will watch current literature and retrieve the necessary information on points that will interest him.
The modern methods of vocabulary study have emerged from practical concerns, especially those of foreign language teaching, dictionary-making, and recently, from the needs of machine translation and information retrieval. Improvements and expansion in foreign language teaching called forth a new co-operation between didactics and linguistics. In this connection it is well to remember that many eminent linguists devoted a great deal of attention to problems of teaching languages: L.V. Shcherba, L. Bloomfield, Ch. Fries, O. Jespersen, E. Nida wrote monographs on these problems.
There has been a considerable growth of activity in the field of mathematical linguistics. Much of this is connected with computer-aided linguistics. We have attempted to show the usefulness of set-theoretical concepts for the study of vocabulary. We must be on our guard, however, against the idea that an attachment of mathematical symbols and
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operations to linguistics material will by itself make the statements about it more scientific. The introduction of mathematical apparatus into linguistics is justified only when it is based on a thorough comprehension of linguistic problems involved. Otherwise an indiscriminate introduction of mathematical procedures will be purely ornamental and may even lead to the generation of meaningless results. Even more important and promising, perhaps, is the fact that the penetration of mathematical methods, whether from the theory of sets, adaptive system theory, symbolic logic or mathematical statistics, leads to a more rigorous general approach. We are now hopeful that with the help of cautious and responsible application of some developments in system theory a genuinely scientific lexicology can come into being that will be useful in different branches of applied linguistics.
A fresh departure in the study of language including its vocabulary is the communicative linguistics in which the pragmatic rather than structural approach is used. This new trend relates vocabulary characteristics not only to meanings but to uses and situations and the degree of their formality. Pragmatics concerned with the relations between signs and expressions and their users is steadily gathering momentum penetrating all branches of linguistics. At present, however, this promising trend has hardly begun to take shape.
In more than ten years that have passed since the second edition of this book went to press, the problems of English lexicology have been investigated in a tremendous number of publications. Bringing the bibliography up to date keeping the same degree of comprehensiveness without a great increase in bulk proved impossible. Our debt to numerous works of scholarship had been acknowledged in copious notes and references of the previous editions. Here a basically different approach was chosen: bibliographical footnotes were drastically reduced and the selective list gathered below includes books especially recommended as further reading. An attempt is made to take account of modern lexicological theory as developed in the last decade and also to show the survival of basic studies translated, updated and published many years after their first edition. (See, for instance, works by K. Baldinger, M. Breal, O. Jespersen.)

RECOMMENDED READING
Агамджанова В. И. Контекстуальная избыточность лексического значения слова. Рига, 1977.
Азнаурова Э. С. Очерки по стилистике слова. Ташкент, 1973.
Акуленко В. В. Вопросы интернационализации словарного состава языка. Харьков, 1972.
Амосова Н. Н. Этимологические основы словарного состава современного английского языка. М., 1956.
Амосова Н. Н. Основы английской фразеологии. Л., 1963.
Амосова Н. Н. Английская контекстология. Л., 1968. (На англ. яз.).
Апресян Ю. Д. Лексическая семантика. Синонимические средства языка. М. 1974.
Арнольд И. В. Лексикология современного английского языка. М., 1959.
Арнольд И. В. Семантическая структура слова в современном английском языке и методы ее исследования. Л., 1966.
Арнольд И. В. Стилистика современного английского языка: Стилистика декодирования. 2-е изд., перераб. Л., 1981.
Аспекты семантических исследований: Сборник. М., 1980.
Беляева Т. М., Потапова И. А. Английский язык за пределами Англии. Л., 1971.
Беляева Т. М. Словообразовательная валентность глагольных основ в английском языке. М., 1979.
Бенвенист Э. Общая лингвистика/Пер. с англ. М., 1977.
Блумфилд Л. Язык/Пер. с англ. М., 1968.
Бондарко А. В. Грамматические категории и контекст. Л., 1971.
Бондарко А. В. Грамматическое значение и смысл. Л., 1978.
Борисов В. В. Аббревиация и акронимы. М., 1972.
Виноградов В. В. Об основных типах фразеологических единиц в русском языке // Виноградов В. В. Лексикология и лексикография: Избранные труды. М., 1977.
Виноградов В. В. Основные типы лексических значений слова // Виноградов В. В. Лексикология и лексикография: Избранные труды. М., 1977.
Вольф E. М. Грамматика и семантика прилагательного. М., 1978.
Вольф E. М. Функциональная семантика оценки. М., 1985.
Гулыга E. В., Шендельс E. И. Грамматико-лексические поля в современном немецком языке. М., 1969.
Есперсен О. Философия грамматики/Пер. с англ. М., 1958.
Звегинцев В. А. Семасиология. М., 1957.
Звегинцев В. А. История языкознания XIX-XX вв. в очерках и извлечениях. М., 1965.
Иванова И. П., Бурлакова В. В., Почепцов Г. Г. Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка. М., 1981.
Ильиш Б. А. Строй современного английского языка. 3-е изд. Л., 1971.
Караулов Ю. Н. Общая и русская идеография. М., 1976.
Караулов Ю. Н. Лингвистическое конструирование и тезаурус литературного языка. М., 1981.
Касарес X. Введение в современную лексикографию/Пер. с исп. М., 1958.
Кацнельсон С. Д. Типология языка и речевое мышление. Л., 1972.
Кащеева М. А., Потапова И. А., Тюрина Н. С. Практикум по английской лексикологии. Л., 1974.
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Котелова Н. 3. Значение слова и его сочетаемость. Л., 1975.
Кубрякова Е. С. Основы морфологического анализа. М., 1974.
Кубрякова Е. С. Типы языковых значений. Семантика производного слова. М., 1981.
Кузнецова А. И. Понятие семантической системы языка и методы ее исследования. М., 1963.
Кунин А. В. Английская лексикология. М., 1940. (На англ. яз.).
Кунин А. В. Английская фразеология. М., 1970.
Кунин А. В. Фразеология современного английского языка. М., 1972.
Лайонз Дж. Введение в теоретическую лингвистику/Пер. с англ. М., 1978.
Лотте Д. С. Вопросы заимствования и упорядочения иноязычных терминов и терминоэлементов. М., 1982.
Медникова Э. М. Значение слова и методы его описания. М., 1974.
Медникова Э. М. Практикум по лексикологии английского языка. М., 1978. (На англ. яз.).
Мешков О. Д. Словообразование современного английского языка. М., 1976.
Никитин М. В. Лексическое значение слова. М., 1983.
Новиков Л. А. Семантика русского языка. М., 1982.
Пауль Г. Принципы истории языка/Пер. с нем. М., 1960.
Потебня А. А. Эстетика и поэтика. М., 1977.
Пражский лингвистический кружок: Сб. статей/Сост., ред. и предисл. Н. А. Кондрашова. М., 1967.
Принципы и методы семантических исследований. Сборник. М., 1976.
Резинкина Н. М. Развитие языка английской научной литературы. М., 1978.
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Уфимцева А. А. Слово в лексической системе языка. М., 1968.
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Baldinger, Kurt. Die Semasiologie. Versuch eines Uberblicks. Berlin, 1957/ Transl. as "Semantic Theory: Towards a Modern Semantic". Oxford, 1980.
Baugh А.С. and Cable T. A History of the English Language. 3rd ed. London, 1978.
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Bolinger, Dwight. Aspects of Language. 3rd ed. N. Y., 1981.
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Chafe, Wallace L. Meaning and the Structure of Language. Chicago - London, 1970.
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Halliday M. A. K., Mclntosh A. and Strevens P.D. The Linguistic Science and Language Teaching. London, 1964.
Halliday M. A. K. and Hasan R. Cohesion in English. London, 1976.
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Hockett, Charles. A Course in Modern Linguistics. N. Y., 1958.
Jespersen, Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language. Oxford, 1982. (First publ. in 1905.)
Jespersen, Otto. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. Copenhagen, 1942. Part VI.
Koziol H. Handbuch der englischen Wortbildungslehre. Heidelberg, 1937.
Koziol H. Grundziige der englischen Semantik. Vienna, 1969.
Kronasser H. Handbuch der Semasiologie. Heidelberg, 1952.
Leech, Geoffrey N. English in Advertising. London, 1966.
Leech, Geoffrey N. Towards a Semantic Description of English. London, 1969.
Leech, Geoffrey N. Meaning and the English Verb. London, 1971.
Leech, Geoffrey N. Semantics. Penguin Books, 1974.
Leech, Geoffrey N., Deuchar M. and Hoggnuradd R. English Grammar for Today. A New Introduction. London, 1982.
Leech, Geoffrey N. Principles of Pragmatics. London, 1985.
Lehnart M. Morphem, Wort und Satz im Englischen. Berlin, 1969.
Lehrer A. Semantic Fields and Lexical Structure. Amsterdam - London, 1974.
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Leisi, Ernst. Der Wortinhalt. Seine Struktur im Deutschen und Englischen. 2 Aufl. Heidelberg, 1961.
Leith, Dick. A Social History of English. London, 1983.
Lyons, John. Semantics. London-Cambridge, 1979. Vols. 1 and 2.
Lyons, John. Language and Linguistics: an Introduction. Cambridge, 1981.
Marchand H. The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation. Wiesbaden, 1960.
McKnight С. English Words and their Background. New York - London, 1931.
Nida, Eugene. Morphology, the Descriptive Analysis of Words. Michigan, 1946.
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Ogden C. K., Richards I. A. The Meaning of Meaning. N. Y., 1970. (First publ. in 1923.)
Palmer H. Grammar of English Words. London, 1961.
Palmer F. Semantics. A New Outline/Pref. and commentaries by M. V. Nikitin. M., 1982.
Partridge, Eric. Slang To-day and Yesterday. London, 1933.
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291

Quirk, Randolph. The English Language and Images of Matter. London, 1972.
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DICTIONARIES
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Большой англо-русский словарь: В 2-х т./Под общим рук. И. Р. Гальперина. 2-е изд., испр. М., 1979.
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The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles: In two vols / Prepared by W. Little, H.W. Fowler and J. Coulson; revised and ed. by C.T. Onions. 3rd ed. Oxford, 1973. (First publ. in 1933.)
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The Heritage Illustrated Dictionary of the English Language/Ed. by W. Morris. N.Y., 1975.
Hornby A.S. The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. London, 1974.
Jones, Daniel. Everyman's English Pronouncing Dictionary. 11th ed. London - New York, 1963. (First publ. in 1917.)
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. London, 1978.
Random House Dictionary of the English Language. The unabridged edition / Ed. by J. Stein. N.Y., 1971."
Webster's New World Dictionary of American Language. N.Y., 1978.
Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language. Springfield, Mass., 1961.
Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language. Pocket size edition/ Ed. by D.B. Guralnik. N.Y., 1977.

SUBJECT INDEX

Abbreviation 142-145
Ablaut combinations 130
Ablaut or vowel gradation 146
Abstracted forms 106, 218, 219
Acronyms 142-145, 218
Adaptive system 10ff, 21, 143, 216ff: see System, lexical adaptive
Affixes 77-107
Allomorphs 101, 102
Amelioration 70
American English 265-270
Antonyms 182, 201, 209-215
antonyms, absolute 209ff
antonyms derivational 209ff
Aphaeresis, aphesis 138
Apocope 138
Archaic words 205, 220
Assimilation of loan words 255-259
Assimilation of synonyms 205, 255-259
Australian variant 270, 271
Back-formation 127, 150-152
Bahuvrihi 123, 125
Barbarism 256, 258
Basic form 153, 185
Bias words 49
Blends, blending 141, 142
Borrowing, borrowed affixes and words:
see Loan words Bound forms 77, 80
Boundary cases 102, 103, 121
Canadianism 270
Cliche 179-181
Clipping: see Shortening
Cockney 262, 263
Cognate words 79ff
Colloquial words 145, 245-249
Combinations, phraseological 170, 171 Combining forms 80, 104-106
Combining power 194; see also Valency Complementary distribution 101ff
Componential analysis 41, 57-59 Compounds 78, 108-152
Compound adjectives 125, 126
Compound derivatives: see Derivational
compounds Compound nouns 123-125

Compound verbs 126, 127
Compounds, asyntactic 111
Compounds, endocentric and exocentric
111, 123ff
Compounds, syntactic 111
Connotation and connotative meaning 40-50, 97, 177, 230-238, 251
Contextual analysis 56, 57
Contrastive and contrary notions 209ff
Conversion 18, 153-164
Conversives 73, 209-215
Correlation of oppositions 26, 81, 111 Curtailment 134
Dead suffixes 100
Degradation of meaning: see Pejoration
Demotivation 132
Denotative meaning 40, 47-50
Derivational affixes 77, 87ff
Derivational compounds 127
Derivatives 10, 76ff
Determinant and determinatum 108ff
Diachronic (approach) 10//, 155//, 216
Dialect 262
Dictionaries 272-285
Dictionary, bilingual 272ff
Dictionary, explanatory 272ff
Dictionary, machine-translation 275
Diminutive suffixes 97
Disintegration of polysemy: see Split of polysemy
Distinctive feature 25, 26, 53, 146, 185
Distinctive stress 15, 147, 148
Distribution 13, 101
Doublets, etymological 136, 137, 259 260
Echoism, echo words: see Sound imitation
Elevation: see Amelioration
Ellipsis 139ff
Emotional tone (colouring, connotation, component, force) 43, 44, 233ff, 437; see also Connotations
Emotive speech 234
Equivalence 23
Equonym 197
Etymology 10, 15, 79

294

Euphemism 75, 207 Evaluative connotation 48
False etymology 131
Form words 18, 187, 222-223
Formatives, inner 89
Formatives, outer 77-89
Free forms 77ff, 129, 131
Functional affixes 87-90
Functional change: see Conversion
Functional styles 240-250
Fusions or portmanteau words: see
Blends
Fusion phraseological 170 Fuzzy sets 6, 21, 26
Generic terms 39, 63, 196 Generalisation 62-63 Glossary 274
Historism 220
Holophrasis 122ff
Homograph 185
Homonyms and homonymy 154ff, 182-194
Homonymy, patterned 155ff, 183ff, 191 Homophone 154, 184ff
Hybrids 106, 107
Hyperbole 69
Hyperonymy 196, 197
Hyponym 196, 197, 226-229
Ideographic groups 226, 227 Ideolect 209
Idioms: see Set expressions Immediate constituents 83-87, 141
Implicational 41, 50
Indivisibility 28
Informal vocabulary 242
Information retrieval 13
Integrity 30, 114 Intensifier 235
Intensifying connotation 49 International words 260, 261
Irony 69
Learned words 243 Lexical group 26 Lexical variants 207, 208 Lexicalisation 18
Lexico-grammatical class or group 224 Lexico-grammatical meaning: see Meaning, lexico-grammatical
Lexico-grammatical variant 51, 52 Lexicography 191-194, 272ff Linguostylistics 240ff
Litotes 69
Loan words 100, 135, 252-259
Marked member of the opposition 242 Meaning, contextual 54

Meaning, denotative 40, 47
Meaning, figurative 52
Meaning, grammatical 39, 99
Meaning, lexical 16, 37ff, 42-47 Meaning, lexico-grammatical 16, 224 Metaphor 64ff
Metonymy 64ff
Morpheme 19, 77-107
Morphemic analysis 81ff
Motivation 33-36, 83, 95
Native words 204ff, 252ff Neologism 134, 216-220 Neutralisation, semantic 196 Non-semantic grouping 238, 239 Nonce usage 55, 245 Nonce words 18 Notion 42-47
Obsolete words 177, 205
Official vocabulary 243
Onomasiological approach 24
Onomasiology 55
Onomatopoeia 148ff
Onomatopoeic words: see Sound imitation
Onomatopoeic stems 129
Oppositions 23, 25, 184ff, 195,215,225, 241
Opposition, basis of 26
Opposition, binary 215, 242
Opposition, equipollent 242
Opposition, lexical 134, 145, 241 Opposition, polydimensional 26 Opposition, privative 215
Opposition, proportional 98 Opposition, synonymic 195
Opposition, theory of 25, 26
Paradigm 156ff
Paradigmatic 24, 201
Paralinguistics 14
Paronyms 207, 208
Patterned homonymy: see Homonymy,
patterned
Patterns, word-building 90-95, 133 Patterns, new word-forming 133 Pejoration 70
Phrasal verbs: see Verbal collocations Phraseology: see Set expressions
Poetic diction 244
Polysemy and polysemantic words 41, 50-57, 182
Polysemy, disintegration of: see Split of polysemy
Positional mobility 29, 30
Pragmalinguistics 14, 47ff, 240
Prefix 13ff, 213
Proper nouns 43, 62, 66-69 Proverbs 179ff
Pseudo-compounds 131
295

Quotation compounds and quotation derivation 122, 123, 129
Quotations, familiar 179-181
Reduplication 129, 130
Referent 31, 32
Register 241ff
Rhyme combinations 130, 131
Roots 77ff, 153ff, 188
Semantic change 60-76
Semantic change, extralinguistic causes of 73-76
Semantic change, linguistic causes of 71-73
Semantic component: see Seme
Semantic field 226, 228, 229
Semantic structure of the Word 10, 42, 50-55
Semantic triangle 31-33
Semasiology 37
Seme 41-59
Semi-affixes 84, 102, 116-118
Semi-fixed combinations 166-167
Set expressions 19, 165-181
Shortened words and shortening 134-145 Simplification of stems 132
Slang 140, 249-251
Sociolinguistics 11, 230, 240
Sound imitation or onomatopoeia 129, 148ff
Sound interchange 145-147
Sound symbolism 130
Specialisation 61, 62
Split of polysemy 188ff
Stem 77ff, 90-95
'Stone-wall' problem 118-120
Stress, distinctive 147, 148
Style, functional 240-248 Substantivation 161, 162

Suffixes 77-107, 213
Suppletion, lexical 90, 243
Synchronic (approach) 10ff, 155ff, 216
Syncope 138
Synonymic differentiation 209
Synonymic dominant 196
Synonyms 178, 182ff, 194-209
Synonymy, sources of 203-205
Syntagmatic vs paradigmatic relations 23
System, lexical or vocabulary 10ff, 38, 152, 182ff, 215
System, lexical adaptive 10ff, 21, 216
Technical terms and terminology 229-233 Telescoping and portmanteau words 141 Thematic groups 226ff
Transformations, explanatory 59, 192 Transposition 153, 163
Ultimate constituents 81, 84
Umlaut 146
Understatement: see Litotes Uninterruptability 29, 30
Unities, phraseological 170ff
Valency 24, 90-95, 195, 200
Variants or regional varieties 262ff
Verbal collocations of the 'give up' type 120, 121, 161, 206
Vowel gradation 146
Vowel mutation 146
Word, definition of 27-31
Word equivalents 9, 20, 167
Word-family 77ff, 222
Word-formation analysis 81ff Word-formation, types of 163
Zero derivation: see Conversion

УЧЕБНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ
Ирина Владимировна Арнольд
ЛЕКСИКОЛОГИЯ
СОВРЕМЕННОГО
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