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С.М. Костенко, И.Б. Борковская, Т.Н. Михельсон, Н.В. Успенская



ПОСОБИЕ
Для научных работников
ПО РАЗВИТИЮ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Предлагаемое пособие предназначено для развития навыков устной речи в группах аспирантов и научных сотрудников, готовящихся к сдаче кандидатского экзамена по английскому языку и при работе в студенческих группах.
Пособие представляет собой сборник текстов и упражнений к ним и состоит из четырех разделов:
"Biography of a Scientist" (составитель Т. Н. Михельсон); "Scientific Institution" (составитель Н. В. Успенская); "Scientific Gathering" (составитель С. М. Костенко); "Discussing Current Professional Literature" (составитель И. Б. Борковская). Общее руководство работой над пособием осуществляла С. М. Костенко.
Каждый раздел включает несколько оригинальных (неадаптированных, но сокращенных) текстов на данную тему. При их отборе авторы стремились к тому, чтобы каждый текст носил общенаучный характер, достаточно легко пересказывался и был насыщен лексикой, связанной с научной работой. Тексты пособия заимствованы из следующих источников: биографии ученых - из английских и американских энциклопедий; тексты раздела "Scientific Institution" - из американского путеводителя, журнала "Civil Engineering", а текст "Imperial College" - рассказ английского физика о своем колледже, записанный на магнитофон;
тексты раздела "Scientific Gathering" взяты из журнала "Nature"; тексты последнего раздела - из журнала "Endeanour".
Целью упражнений является развитие различных видов речевой деятельности (говорение, письменная речь, восприятие со слуха, перевод). Все упражнения можно подразделить на:
а) упражнения на проверку понимания текстового материала учащимися, б) лексико-грамматические упражнения, в) учебно-коммуникативные упражнения (их подавляющее большинство), г) упражнения на контроль усвоения материала (перевод с русского), д) упражнения (в виде небольших текстов) на развитие понимания английской речи на слух.
Данное пособие выходит 2-м изданием (1-е изд. вышло в 1970 г.). Тексты оставлены без изменений, поскольку они представляют собой основу учебного материала, предназначенного для активного усвоения. Упражнения подверглись весьма значительной переработке. Подавляющее большинство тренировочных упражнений заменено условно-речевыми и речевыми упражнениями, что отвечает принципам современной коммуникативной методики.


======================== PART I ========================
BIOGRAPHY OF A SCIENTIST






Text I
NIELS BOHR (1885-1962)
Bohr is a Danish physicist, one of the most ingenious interpreters of his generation of the problems of modern theoretical physics. Born in Copenhagen on October 7, 1885, he did physics at the University of Copenhagen, obtaining his doctor's degree in 1911 and proceeded immediately to Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge for further study under Sir J. J. Thomson. In 1912 he moved to Manchester University, where he was associated with Ernest Rutherford in the latter's atomic research. In 1914, following a year as lecturer at the University of Copenhagen Bohr returned to Manchester, remaining there until 1916, when he was made professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen.
In 1920, largely due to Bohr's efforts, the Institute of Theoretical Physics was established at Copenhagen. He became its first head and under him the Institute has become an important centre for the development of theoretical and experimental physics. Prior to World War II Bohr's Institute had become the world centre for atomic physics.
Just before World War II, Bohr advanced the idea that the compound nucleus was fundamental to the phenomena of nuclear disintegration, a concept that proved fruitful in later work. In collaboration with John Archibald Wheeler he proposed a theory of nuclear fission that led to atomic research which produced the atomic bomb.
In 1943, after the Nazis had occupied Denmark, Bohr escaped to England in a small boat. Making the way to the United States, he took a leading part in the atomic bomb project, working mainly at the laboratory established in early 1943 at Los Alamos in New Mexico. In 1944-1945 Bohr served as adviser to the Scientific Staff of the Manhatten Project. In 1945 Bohr returned to Copenhagen to resume his duties as director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics.
Bohr's great achievement was recognized internationally by the Nobel prize award to him in 1922 for his study of atomic structure and radiation. In 1957 he was of the Atoms for Peace award. That same year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he delivered his lecture on the Philosophical Lessons of Atomic Progress.

Exercises
Ex. 1. Read aloud the statements below and translate them into Russian paying special attention to the parts in italics.

1. Bohr is one of the most ingenious interpreters of his generation of the problems of modern theoretical physics. 2. He did physics at the University of Copenhagen, obtaining his doctor's degree in 1911. 3. He proceeded immediately to Cambridge for further studies under Thomson. 4. In 1912 he moved to Manchester University where he was associated with Rutherford in the latter's atomic research. 5. In 1914, following a year as lecturer at the University of Copenhagen, Bohr returned to Manchester. 6. In 1920, largely due to Bohr's efforts, the Institute of Theoretical Physics was established at Copenhagen. 7. Bohr became its first head and under him the Institute has become a world famous centre of research. 8. Bohr took a leading part in the atomic bomb project, working mainly at the laboratory established in early 1943. 9. In 1944-1945 Bohr served as adviser to the scientific staff of the Manhattan project. 10. In 1945 Bohr returned to Copenhagen to resume his duties as director of the Institute. 11. Bohr's great achievement was recognized internationally by the Nobel prize award to him. 12. In 1957 he was the first recipient of the Atoms for Peace Award. 13. That same year he delivered his lecture on the Philosophical Lessons of Atomic Progress.


Ex. 2. Answer the following questions using words and expressions from the text for those in italics.

Model:
1. Where did Bohr study physics?
2. He did physics at the University of Copenhagen.

1. When did Bohr graduate, from the University? 2. Where did he go in 1912? 3. What idea did he put forward just before World War II? 4. Did he advance this idea alone or working together with Wheeler? 5. Did he participate in atomic research? 6. When did he come back to Copenhagen? 7. When did Bohr's contribution win him international recognition? 8. Was he the first to receive the Atoms for peace award? 9. When did he give his lecture on the Philosophical Lessons of Atomic Progress?


Ex. 3. Ask and answer questions about outstanding people in different fields of human activity. Use the indefinite article before nouns denoting profession. Here is the list of nouns and adjectives for you to choose from: architect, artist, composer, inventor, playwright, philosopher, poet, writer, scientist, archaeologist, astronomer, biologist, biochemist, botanist, chemist, historian, mathematician, philologist, physiologist, physicist; famous, world-famous, well-known, world-known, eminent, outstanding, prominent, distinguished, etc.

Model:
a) 1. Was Dalton a scientist?
2. Yes, he was a distinguished scientist.
b) 1. Was Hopkins a writer?
2. No, he wasn't. He was an outstanding biochemist.

Speak in the same way about Aristotle, Beethhoven, Byron, Darwin, Dickens, Edison, Einstein, Faraday, Rossi, Levitan, Lobachevski, Mendeleyev, Newton, Pavlov, Rembrandt, Rutherford, B. Shaw, J. Grimm, Schlieman, Tchaikovski, Tolstoy and others.


Ex. 4. Agree with the following statements. Use: theoretical (experimental) physicist, postgraduate student, first (second, etc.) year student, researcher, lecturer etc.

Model:
1. As far as I know, Petrov is in his third fear at the University.
2. Yes, you're right (that's right; exactly). He is a third year student.

1. It seems that your friend is in his second year at the University. 2. I've been told that your brother does experimental research in biology. 3. If I'm not mistaken, Popov did postgraduate research at your Institute. 4. To my mind, Dr. Brown is distinguished for his scientific research in theoretical physics. 5. For all I know, Dr. Ivanov gives lectures at the Polytechnical Institute. 6. I have recently learned that Peter is in his second year at the lnstitute of Electrical Engineering. 7. As far as I know, Dr. Somov does research in organic chemistry.


Ex. 5. Answer the following questions. Use the nouns: author, inventor, discoverer, founder.

Model:
1. Did Dickens write many books?
2. Yes, he is the author of many books.

1. Did Columbus discover America? 2. Did Popov invent radio? 3. Did Leo Tolstoy write many novels? 4. Did Lomonosov found Moscow University?


Ex. 6. Insert the definite or the indefinite article and read the sentences aloud.

1. Milton was . . . famous English poet. He was . . . author of "Paradise Lost". 2. My scientific adviser is . . . distinguished scientist. He is . . . author of a great number of papers and monographs. 3. Marie Curie was . . . world-famous physicist. 4. Do you happen to know who was . . . author of modern quantum mechanics? 5. Newton is known as . . . discoverer of the Laws of Motion. 6. Thomas Hunt Morgan is . . . author of many books. 7. Columbus was . . . great explorer. He is . . . discoverer of America. 8. Popov is . . . inventor of radio. 9. Edison is well-known as . . . inventor.


Ex. 7. Confirm the following statements. Use: be famous for, be distinguished for, be known for.

Model:
1. Bohr made a distinguished contribution to science.
2. Yes, he did (that's right; you're right; exactly). He is distinguished for his contribution to science.

1. Feyman gave a well-known course of lectures. 2. Mendeleyev discovered the Law of Periodicity. 3. Dickens wrote many world-famous novels. 4. Columbus discovered America. 5. Rutherford did distinguished. research. Б. Copernicus developed his famous hypothesis.


Ex. 8. Answer the following questions.

Model:
1. Guttenberg was the inventor of printing, wasn't he?
2. Yes (you're right; that's right; exactly, etc.), he is famous as the inventor (for having invented) printing.

1. Stratford-on-Avon is Shakespeare's. birthplace, isn't it? 2. Is Shroedinger the creator of wave mechanics? 3. Academician Ioffe founded the Soviet school of semiconductor physics, didn't he? 4. Is Novosibirsk a well-known scientific centre? 5. Your native town has very beautiful architecture, hasn't it? 6. Did academician Pavlov advance the theory of conditioned reflexes?


Ex. 9. Translate into English.

1. Мария Кюри известна тем, что она открыла радий. 2. Фарадей знаменит тем, что он сформулировал (formulate) закон электромагнитной индукции (electromagnetic induction). 3. Эдисон известен как изобретатель фонографа (phonograph). 4. Наш город знаменит своей архитектурой. 4. Гагарин прославился как первый космонавт (cosmonaut).


Ex. 10. Use the words and expressions in italics to compose a talk about a researcher in your field: be born; obtain (get) one's degree; work in collaboration with . . . (be associated with . . . ); advance the idea of . . . ; be the author of . . . ; recognize one's achievement; take a leading part in . . . , ete.


Ex. 11. React to the following statements or answer the questions. Use the verbs obtain or receive. Note that obtain means getting something through efforts (obtain data, evidence, information, knowledge, results). Receive means getting what is offered, given, sent (receive an award, a prize, a letter, a telegram, an invitation, news, education, training). However one can say obtain or receive a science degree.

Model:
1. You obtained some new data, didn't you?
2. Yes, I'm glad to tell you that I obtained very interesting data.

1. I hear your scientific adviser has obtained some original experimental results. 27 When did you obtain your degree? 3. As far as I know Petrov has received an invitation to join our lab. 4. I understand that you received your education at Moscow University. 5. Did your scientific adviser receive the Lenin prize? 6. Have you obtained all the necessary experimental data? 7. Do you think the results you obtained will help you to make final conclusions? 8. Have you received any news from your collaborators who are now on an expedition to the North?


Ex. 12. Translate into English using the verbs get, obtain, receive.

1. Он не получил никакого образования. 2. Она получит премию. 3. Они получили цепные данные. 4. Я думаю, он получит степень доктора. 5. Полученные ими данные достоверны (quite reliable). 6. Когда вы получили эти данные? 7. Мы получили приглашение посетить эту интересную выставку. 8. Она получила ученую степень два года назад.


Ex. 13. Agree to the statements below and supply some additional information. Use introductory phrases: I quite (fully) agree with you; you're right; that's right; indeed; exactly; quite so; I am of the same opinion; I think so; I believe so, etc.

Model:
1. As far as I know, Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist.
2. You are quite right. He was an outstanding physicist, one of the most ingenious interpreters of modern physics.

1. If I'm not mistaken, Bohr left Copenhagen for Manchester in 1914. 2. As far as I could gather from the text, Bohr took an active part in establishing the Institute of Theoretical Physics. 3. I believe Bohr advanced a lot of concepts of far-reaching consequence. 4. For all I know, Bohr did not stay in Denmark after the Nazis occupied the country. 5. To my mind Bohr's great achievement was generally recognized, wasn't it? 6. In my opinion Bohr was a distinguished scientist. 7. I heard that Bohr was not only a famous physicist, he was an outstanding philosopher as well. 8, As far as I remember, Bohr gave lectures at the University of Copenhagen. 9. I believe, that Bohr worked not only in Denmark but in the United States as well.


Ex. 14. Answer the following questions using the words in brackets. Begin your answers with such introductory phrases as: as far as I know; as far as I remember; to my mind; certainly; it's hard to tell; probably; to tell the truth; of course; if I am not mistaken, etc.

Model:
1. Do you work hard? (be associated with).
2. Of course, I do. I'm associated with a team of researchers and all of us work rather hard.

1. Is your friend still staying in Leningrad? (move somewhere). 2. Why was Enrico Fermi awarded the Nobel Prize? (recognize). 3. What is Newton's main contribution to science? (establish). 4. What is Mendeleyev famous for? (advance, propose). 5. Are you going to take part in the research carried on in your laboratory? (obtain new datum results). 6. What activities is your scientific adviser engaged in? (be head of; give lectures; write papers). 7. What is the main problem you're working at? (be concerned with; work under somebody). 8. Are you working at this problem alone? (in collaboration with . . . ; research team).


Ex. 15. Give appropriate Russian equivalents.

1. Родиться. 2. Он родился в 1933 году. 3. Когда вы родились? 4. Так как он родился в Англии, он хорошо знал английский язык, хотя его родным языком был датский (native tongue, mother tongue). 5. Получить образование. 6. Где вы получили образование? 7. Получив образование в Кембридже, он знал (be familiar with) систему образования в Англии (educational system). 8. Получить степень. 9. Где он получил степень доктора? 10. Занимался ли Бор под руководством Томсона? 11. Собирается ли она заниматься дальше (take up further studies)? 12. Бор работал с Резерфордом. 13. Когда она работала с вами? 14. Вы когда-нибудь работали с ними? (Use Present Perfect). 15. Где вы работали с ними? 16. Благодаря усилиям Бора. 17. Благодаря знанию физики. 18. Наш опыт был закончен вовремя (in time) благодаря совместным усилиям (joint) многих сотрудников (workers). 19. Кто был первым директором вашего института? 20. Кто организовал вашу лабораторию? 21. Выдвигать мысль (idea). 22. Мысль, выдвинутая Бором, оказалась плодотворной (fruitful). 23. Предлагать теорию. 24. Что вы предлагаете? 25. Предложенный им метод (approach) оказался полезным (helpful). 26. Вернувшись в Копенгаген, Бор вновь начал заниматься исследовательской работой. 27. Когда вы снова начнете свою работу (be going to . . . )? 28. Бор работал консультантом в научном отделе Манхэттенского проекта. 29. Огромные заслуги Бора получили признание.


Ex. 16. Answer the following questions.

1. Where were you educated? 2. Did you do further studies after graduation? 3. Did you move anywhere after graduation? 4. Have you ever given any lectures? 5. What part do you take in research carried on at your laboratory? 6. Who is head of your laboratory? 7. What is he distinguished for? 8. Is he the author of any textbooks or monographs? 9. Has he received any awards? 10. Who do you think has advanced the most fundamental ideas of modern physics (biology, physiology, astronomy, chemistry, etc.)? 11. Are you familiar with these theories? 12. What are your plans for the nearest future?


Text 2
CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN (1809-1882)
Charles Robert Darwin, English naturalist and author, was born at Shrewsbury, February 12, 1809. His father, Robert Warning Darwin, was a distinguished physician at Shrewsbury.
Charles Darwin studied at Shrewsbury School under Dr. S. Butler. After attending school Darwin spent two years at Edinburgh University in the study of medicine. In 1817 he enrolled at Cambridge University, He early devoted himself to the study of natural history. In 1831 he was appointed naturalist to a naval vessel, then about to sail on an extended surveying expedition. Darwin came home with rich stores of knowledge. He had been much impressed by the manner in which closely allied animals replace one another in proceeding southwards in South America.
In 1837 Darwin had started a notebook in which he entered facts concerning natural selection. He saw that selection was the key-stone of man's success. Various ideas as to the causes of evolution had to be abandoned.
In 1842, he wrote out his first outline on the origin of species. He corresponded with Asa Gray, the United States naturalist, and sent Gray a letter explaining his views in 1857. This letter became afterwards classical.
Charles Lyell, author of the widely discussed "Principles of Geology", urged Darwin to prepare a more extensive treatise. The revision was only half finished when Darwin received a letter and manuscript from A. R. Wallace. Wallace asked Darwin to read the manuscript and to forward it to Lyell. Darwin was much startled to find in the essay a complete abstract of his own theory of natural selection. It was an unusual situation: two naturalists, working independently of each other, had simultaneously developed theories that were identical. Both had been influenced by Th. R. Malthus' work on population, both were familiar with Lyell's views on geology, each had observed widely varying species.
Darwin sent Wallace's manuscript, together with the second draft of his own treatise, to Lyell, who consulted Josef D. Hooker, English botanist. On their recommendation both Wallace's and Darwin's essays were read as a joint paper before the Linnae Society at London. In 1859 Darwin published "The Origin of Species by Natural Selection".
Although Darwin and Wallace differed in some opinions they remained friends. Darwin was, with Wallace, the first to attempt to work out a logical explanation of the variations of species, and to collect and arrange facts upon which the theory of evolution could be based.
Because of the emphasis placed upon "The Origin of Species" and "The Descent of Man" Darwin's numerous of other important contributions are frequently overlooked.
Darwin received many honours from learned societies in Great Britain and on the continent. He died at Down, Kent, England, April 19, 1882.


Exercises
Ex. 1. Comprehensive check.

1. Who was Charles Darwin? 2. Can you tell me where he was born? 3. Who was his father? 4. Will you tell me under whom Darwin studied at Shrewsbury school? 5. How long did he attend school? 6. What did he do after leaving school? 7. He was interested in the study of natural history, wasn't he? 8. On what expedition did he go? 9. Darwin corresponded with many scientists, didn't he? 10. Why is his correspondence with Asa Gray of special interest to us? 11. Whom did Lyell consult when Darwin sent him his own treatise and the manuscript received from Wallace? 12. What did Lyell and Hooker recommend Darwin? 13. Were Darwin and Wallace of the same opinion on all the problems concerning the theory of evolution? 14. Are you familiar with Darwin's view on the descent of man? 15. What is your opinion on Darwin's main contribution to science?


Ex. 2. Answer the following questions. Note that no article is used before nouns denoting a branch of knowledge (archaeology, astronomy, biology, biochemistry, botany, chemistry, history, mathematics, mechanics, philosophy, philology, physiology, physics, etc.).

Model:
1. What examinations have you already passed?
2. I have passed my exams in history, literature, general linguistics and phonetics.

1. What examination are you going to take next spring? 2. What subjects did you like best while at school? 3. What subjects were you interested in while at the Institute (University)? 4. What course of lectures did you attend while a postgraduate? 5. In what field are you doing research?


Ex. 3. Insert the definite article where necessary and road the sentences aloud. Note that we say "He gives lectures in chemistry" but "He gives lectures on the chemistry of proteins".

1. Do you take interest in . . . science? 2. Botany is . . . science of plants. 3. Pavlov studied . . . biology at the University. 4. . . . astronomy is a branch of . . . knowledge. 5. I am sure that . . . knowledge of English will help me greatly in doing . . . research. 6. What is . . . knowledge? 7. . . . nature has always inspired poets and artists. 8. Are you familiar with . . . nature of . . . radioactivity? 9. He had to take into account . . . radioactivity of this element. 10. Rutherford determined . . . nature of alpha-particles and worked out . . . theory of radioactive disintegration of elements. 11. Mendeleyev discovered . . . Law of . . . Periodicity. 12. In his youth Dr. Nash studied . . . law. 13. My sister is fond of . . . music. 14. . . . music of Chopin is very beautiful. 15. I am not interested in . . . nuclear physics. I want to do . . . research in . . . field of . . . solid-state physics.


Ex. 4. Insert articles where necessary. Remember that we say "He works at и plant" hut "He works at the Lomonosov plant". Note that no article is used before the words school and college when they denote an educational establishment, while the word University is mostly preceded by the definite article.

1. Lomonosov managed to secure admission to . . . school by pretending to be . . . son of . . . nobleman. 2. In 1745 he returned to St. Petersburg and was appointed professor of . . . chemistry at . . . University. 3. Are you going to take post-graduate courses at . . . research institute? 4. Next month my friend is going to give . . . lecture at . . . Department of Plant Anatomy of . . . Institute of . . . Botany. 5. My younger brother goes to . . . school. He hopes to enter . . . University and study . . . physics. 6. Does your sister work as . . . secretary at . . . office or at . . . plant? 7. Dr. Ivanov is . . . secretary of . . . scientific council of . . . Department of . . . theoretical physics.


Ex. 5. Answer the following questions and give some additional information. Note that after the verbs answer, attend, consult, enjoy, enter, join, leave no preposition is needed.

Model:
1. Can you answer all my questions?
2. Sorry, I can't. I'll try to answer one question, if you please.

1. Were you able to answer all the questions put to you? 2. Have you answered the letter you received from your friend? 3. Do you regularly attend English classes? 4. Did you attend the last seminar at your lab? 5. Are you going to attend our meeting tonight? 6. When are you going to consult your scientific adviser? 7. Do you often consult the head of your laboratory on problems concerned with your work? 8. Do you have to consult the dictionary when translating texts on your speciality? 9. Did he enjoy his stay in London? 10. Did you enjoy your holiday? 11. At what age did you enter the Institute? 12. Is your sister (brother) going to enter the University? 13. Did you join any scientific circle while at the University? 14. When did you join this laboratory? 15. When did you leave school? 16. When did you leave your native town?


Ex. 6. Answer the following questions using the verbs in italics.

Model:
1. What mark did your teacher give you in literature? (answer).
2. He gave me a five. I answered all his questions.

attend
1. What do you do to learn philosophy? 2. What did you do yesterday? I called on you but was told you were away. 3. How often are seminars held at your Institute?

consult
4. What do you do if you feel unwell? 5. What do you do if you come across an unfamiliar word in your text? 6. What do you do if you encounter difficulties when solving some problem?

enjoy
7. Did you like the film you saw yesterday? 8. Did you go to Kiev on holiday?

enter
9. How old is your sister? 10. Is that room vacant? Is there anybody there? 11. What Institute did your husband (wife) graduate from?

join
12. Do you attend the meetings of the Learned Geographical Society? 13. How long have you been working at this laboratory?

leave
14. When did you finish school? 15. Where did you live before coming to Leningrad?


Ex. 7. Translate the following sentences into English using the verbs answer, attend, consult, enjoy, follow, join, leave.

1. Преподаватель вошел в класс. 2. Он уехал из Ленинграда. 3. Кто может ответить на мой вопрос? 4. Идите вперед (You go first), а я пойду за вами. 5. На лекции присутствовало только двадцать студентов. 6. On вступил в студенческое научное общество. 7. Советовались ли вы со своим руководителем? 8. Я поступил в университет в 1976 году. 9. Когда вы закончили школу? 10. Вы следили за падением температуры?


Ex. 8. Answer the questions using the verb attend.

Model:
1. Were you present at the last lecture?
2. Yes, I attended it. It was very interesting.

1. How many people were present at the lecture on polymers? 2. Are you going to be present at the next seminar on Shakespeare? 3. Did you go to English classes last year? 4. You studied at the University, didn't you? 5. Does your son (daughter) go to school?


Ex. 9. Answer the questions using the verb visit.

Model:
1. When did he go to England?
2. He visited England last year.

1. When did you go to see your friend? 2. Did you go to Petrodvoretz last Sunday? 3. Have you called on your colleague at the hospital? 4. Have you seen the new exhibition? 5. How often do you go to the Hermitage?


Ex. 10. Insert the verbs attend or visit and read the sentences aloud.

1. All children over seven must . . . school. 2. Have you . . . this exhibition? 3. Who . . . the meeting? 4. Will you . . . your friend to-morrow? 5. Many foreign tourists . . . our country every year. 6. While in Moscow I . . . the Gallery of Russian Art. 7. Who's going to . . . the next lecture in mathematics? 8. During my stay in Prague I . . . many places of interest.


Ex. 11. Translate the following sentences into Russian using the verbs attend от visit.

1. Он не ходит на лекции. 2. Посещаете ли вы семинары по цитологии? 3. Вы были на выставке в Эрмитаже? 4. Правильно ли я вас понял (Am I to understand), что вы собираетесь посетить наш город? 5. Сколько людей посещает эти лекции? 6. Они никогда не ходят на наши семинары.


Ex. 12. Insert the verbs advise or consult. Note that you consult your manager (teacher); your manager advises something to you.

1. The problem you are studying is rather difficult. Did you . . . your scientific adviser on this point? What did he . . . you? 2. Who . . . you to use this method? 3. He had to . . . the reference book. 4. I . . . my doctor. He . . . me to go to the Black Sea shore.


Ex. 13. Translate the following sentences into Russian using he verbs in italics.

consult
1. Я должен посоветоваться с моим научным руководителем (scientific adviser, supervisor). 2. Вы должны посоветоваться с заведующим (manager, head) лаборатории. 3. Они не советовались со мной.

advise
4. Кто посоветовал вам использовать этот метод? 5. Мой руководитель советовал мне использовать другой метод (different approach). 6. Я советую вам проверить (check) ваши данные еще раз.


Ex. 14. Give a short answer to the following questions and then add some details, using the verbs consult or advise.

Model:
1. Did you consult your scientific adviser on the subject of your work?
2. Yes, of course. I always consult him when I have some difficulties. He advised me to use a different approach.

1. Do you often consult reference books? 2. Did your supervisor advise you to read your paper at the conference? 3. When do you consult the dictionary? 4. Did the doctor advise you to take your leave now? 5. Are you going to consult your scientific adviser on how to do the calculations?


Ex. 15. Read the following sentences aloud and translate them into Russian paying special attention to the parts in italics.

1. Am I to understand that your scientific adviser is on leave now? 2. I was told that he was going ore a sightseeing tour of Novgorod. 3. For all I know he is on an expedition to the North. 4. While on his trip to the Crimea he visited Chekhov's house.


Ex. 16. Answer the following questions using the expressions be on leave, be (go) on an expedition (to), be (go) on a tour (of), go on a trip (to).

1. Where is the secretary? (leave). 2. Where is your scientific adviser? (expedition to the North). 3. Where is the head of your laboratory? (tour of England). 4. When did you see Chekhov's house? (trip to the Crimea).


Ex. 17. Translate into English.

1. Он в отпуске. 2. Она поехала в экспедицию на север. 3. Правильно ли я вас понял (Am I to understand), что вы собираетесь в поездку по Англии? 4. Я не поеду завтра на экскурсию по Ленинграду. 5. Ездили ли вы в экспедицию в прошлом году? 5. Во время моей поездки в Киев я познакомился (get acquainted with) с работой их лаборатории.


Ex. 18. Read the sentences aloud and translate them into Russian.

1. I was greatly impressed by what I heard in your talk. 2. We were greatly impressed by the way he conducted his experiment. 3. The audience was greatly impressed by what the speaker said. 4. He was deeply impressed by what he had seen during his trip.


Ex. 19. Answer the following questions. Use the Passive Voice instead of the Active, adding adverbs greatly or deeply.

Model:
1. Did the sights of Leningrad impress you?
2. Yes, I was greatly impressed by the sights of Leningrad.

1. Did the story impress you? 2. Did the report of the new discovery impress you? 3. Did the results obtained by your colleague impress you? 4. Did the speaker impress the audience with his data?


Ex. 20. Translate into English using be impressed by.

1. На меня произвело большое впечатление прекрасное оборудование этой лаборатории. 2. Доклад произвел большое впечатление на слушателей (audience). 3. Поездка в Новосибирск произвела на иностранных ученых большое впечатление. 5. Фильм произвел на меня большое впечатление.


Ex. 21. Describe briefly what impressed you a) during your trip to . . . ; b) while visiting a research centre in . . . ; c) when you heard the lecture by professor . . . .


Ex. 22. Read the following sentences aloud and translate them into Russian paying special attention to the link-verb.

1. Are you familiar with modern views on atomic structure? 2. I got familiar with Darwin's theory while at school. 3. Am I to understand that he is interested in mechanics? 4. He got interested in dynamics when a boy of 14. 5. He wasn't acquainted with my work when he wrote his thesis. 6. She got acquainted with our work after she had read our paper.


Ex. 23. Answer the following questions.

1. You say you are acquainted with the theory of. . . . When did you get acquainted with it? 2. You seem to be greatly interested in this problem. When did you get interested in it? 3. When did you get interested in . . . ?


Ex. 24. Translate into English.

1. Знакомы ли вы с современными гипотезами о происхождении планет? 2. Когда вы познакомились с теорией происхождения видов? 3. Почему вы заинтересовались нашей работой? 4. Он очень (greatly) интересуется нашими результатами. 5. Правильно ли я вас понял, что вы не знаете наших работ?


Ex. 25. React to the following statements. Use the expressions in one's opinion, be of the same (different) opinion on, . . .

Model:
1. I think this theory works well.
2. a) I am of the same opinion.
b) I am of a different opinion. In my opinion this theory does not work at all.

1. To my mind this approach will give reliable re-suits. 2. I am afraid we must use some other approach. 3. There are no opponents of Darwin's theory today. 4. Darwin collected most of his data during his expedition.


Ex. 26. Insert prepositions where necessary and read the sentences aloud.

1. Charles Darwin devoted much time . . . the study of natural history. 2. He went . . . a geological expedition. 3. He was much impressed . . . what he had learned. 4. He is familiar . . . modern views . . . the origin . . . our Galaxy. 5. He consulted . . . an English botanist . . . this point. 6. They differ . . . opinion . . . this subject. 7. He based his theory . . . reliable facts. 8. I was greatly impressed . . . the sights . . . the city. 9. My fellow-worker and I are going . . . a scientific expedition . . . the south. 10. We devote much effort . . . experimental work. 11. I got familiar . . . the theory . . . the descent . . . man while . . . school. 12. Is Dr. Brown here? No, he is away . . . leave. 13. He is . . . the opinion that these facts are reliable. 14. . . . my opinion their approach is quite wrong.


Ex. 27. Translate the following sentences using the words in italics.

devote (to)
1. Кому посвящена эта рукопись? 2. Он посвятил все свое время исследованиям. 3. Они отдали все свои силы (efforts) естественным наукам.


learned (adj.)
4. Кто ученый секретарь в вашем институте? 5. Он выступал в научном географическом обществе. 6. Это научный кружок (society)? 7. Он очень (highly) образованный (знающий) человек;

start
8. Когда отправляется поезд? 9. Они сразу начали свою работу. 10. Он начал свой доклад с (with) короткого вступления (исторического введения).

enter something (without any preposition)
11. Он не входил в комнату. 12. Моя дочь уже поступила в университет. 13. Я поступил в институт в 1967 году.

to consult somebody (something) (without any preposition)
14. Вы должны посоветоваться с врачом. 15. Вы смотрели словарь? (Вы обращались к словарю?) 16. Когда вы поговорите со своим руководителем?

attend (something) (without any preposition)
17. Он не посещает английских занятий (classes). 18. Вы были на прошлой лекции? 19. На нашем семинаре присутствовало 44 человека. 20. Моя дочь ходит в школу.

develop
21. Он разработал новый метод. 22. Они выдвинули смелую (bold) гипотезу. 23. Мой сын проявляет большой (great) интерес к (in) математике. 24. Вы проявили свои фотопленки (films)?


Ex. 28. Translate into English.

1. Под чьим руководством занимался Дарвин? 2. Под руководством профессора Петрова наш институт стал крупным (important) научным центром. 3. Группа (team) профессора Вагина проводит интересные исследования. 4. Когда Попов был выбран (назначен) профессором? 5. Кто назначен директором вашего института? 6. На Дарвина произвело большое впечатление то, что он увидел в Южной Америке. 7. Картины Рембрандта всегда производят на меня глубокое впечатление. 8. Что вам больше всего понравилось (произвело на вас самое большое впечатление) во время вашей поездки? 9. Его доклад широко обсуждался. 10. Имя Павлова широко известно за пределами нашей страны (outside this country). 11. Кто разработал эту теорию? 12. Теория, разработанная Дарвином, не была общепризнана в его время. 13. На Дарвина оказала большое влияние работа Мальтуса. 14. Советовались ли вы со своим руководителем? 15. Что посоветовал вам ваш руководитель? 16. Кто посоветовал вам вступить (to join) в студенческий клуб? 17. Советовал ли вам ваш преподаватель прочитать эту статью? 18. Посоветуйтесь со своими товарищами по работе (fellow-workers). 19. По моему мнению, он знаком с этой теорией. 20. Он собрал и привел в систему необходимые данные.


Ex. 29. a) Give a survey of Darwin's life before he wrote his first outline of the origin of species.

Use: be born at (in); attend school; spend some years in the study of . . . ; devote oneself to . . . ; be appointed . . . ; come home with rich stores of knowledge; be impressed by . . . ; abandon ideas as to the causes of . . . .

b) Give a short outline of Darwin's work.
Use: write an outline on . . . ; correspond with . . . ; explain one's views; prepare an extensive treatise; work independently of each other; develop identical theories; read a joint paper; differ in some opinion; attempt to work out a logical explanation of . . . ; collect and arrange facts; base the theory of . . . on . . . .

c) Describe briefly your current research.
Use: study (work, do research) under . . . ; consult somebody on . . . ; attend lectures (classes, seminars); go on an expedition (a trip); be impressed by . . . ; develop a method (procedure, theory); be familiar with . . . ; write a joint paper; differ in opinion on . . . ; work out an explanation (a theory, an approach); collect and arrange facts (data, observations); attend the meetings of a learned society.


Ex. 30. Make up a short talk about yourself. Use the questions below as a guide.

1. When were you born? 2. Who were your parents? 3. You attended school in Leningrad, didn't you? 4. Have you ever attended English classes? 5. Under whom did you study at the University (Institute)? 6. You often go on expeditions, don't you? 7. What impressed you most when you joined your laboratory? 8. When did you get familiar with . . . views on . . . ? 9. Have you already collected and arranged necessary data (facts, observations)? 10. When do you usually consult your scientific adviser? 11. Are you always of the same opinion on аll the problems concerning your field or do your opinions sometimes differ? 12. Do you correspond with any foreign scientists? 13. You attend all the laboratory seminars, don't you? 14. Are you familiar with current problems discussed at these seminars? 15. What problems are you especially interested in? 16. Have you written any joint papers with any of your colleagues? 17. Did you take part in the work of the students' learned society when an undergraduate?


Text 3
THOMAS HUNT MORGAN (1866-1945)
Thomas Hunt Morgan is one of the chief founders of modern genetics. An authority on embriology, evolution, genetics and heredity, his theory of the gene is generally accepted.
His interest in biology declared itself while an (undergraduate at the Kentucky CoIlege of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts (now the University of Kentucky), from which he graduated in 1886. It matured at Hopkins' University, where he studied embriology under W. K. Brooks.
In 1904 he was appointed professor of experimental zoology at Columbia University. There he carried on, experimental studies in the laws and mechanics of heredity. His work in genetics came to centre on problems of the physical basis of heredity in the venegar fly Drosophila. Soon a group of graduate students and assistants was at work in what became famous as the "fly-room" in the Department of Zoology, in which the processes of inheritance in this small, rapidly breeding insect were so thoroughly analyzed that by 1915 the main outlines of the chromosome theory of heredity had been laid. His observations formed a basis for a complete theory of paired elements, "factors" or "genes", within the chromosome which are responsible for the transmission of heredity. The nature of these genes constituted the chief subjects of his research. This general theory of transmission mechanism of heredity was clearly the most important step in the development of the science of genetics since Mendel's publication in 1866. Morgan's masterly summary of this published in 1926 as the theory of gene listed the new principles added to genetics by the discoveries of his school.
All subsequent work in transmission genetics has been based upon reasoning and the evidence provided by Morgan's school.
After his departure from Columbia University, where this groundwork had been laid, Morgan's interests returned to problems of embriology, while his former students and associates continued to develop his fundamental work in genetics.
Morgan was awarded the 1933 Nobel prize in physiology and medicine for his outstanding discoveries concerning the laws and mechanism of heredity. In 1939 he won the Copley Medal of the Royal Society for his development of the study of genetics. He was the author of a great many books, monographs and papers.

Exercises
Ex. 1. Translate the sentences below into Russian paying special attention to the parts in italics.

1. Morgan is an authority on embriology, evolution, genetics and heredity. 2. His interest in biology declared itself while he was an undergraduate at the Kentucky college. 3. He studied embriology under W. K. Brooks. 4. His work in genetics chine to centre on problems of the physical basis of heredity. 5. A group of graduate students was at work in the Department of Zoology. 6. Morgan's former students and associates continued to develop his fundamental work in genetics.


Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.

1. What is Morgan distinguished for? 2. Under whom did Morgan study embriology? 3. In what field did he carry out experimental research? 4. What insect did he choose to study the physical basis of heredity? 5. When did he give the main outlines of his theory? 6. What did his observations enable him to do? 7. What was the chief subject of his research? 8. What was Morgan's most important contribution to the development of the science of genetics? 9. What did his former students and associates do after he had left Columbia University? 10. What prize was Morgan awarded? 11. What won him the Copley Medal? 12. Do you know whether Morgan wrote any books or monographs?

Ex. 3. Answer the following questions using words and expressions from the text instead of those in italics.

Model:
1. When did Morgan take his degree?
2. He graduated from the University in 1886.

1. When was Morgan made professor? 2. In what field did he do research? 3. What problem did his work concentrate ore? 4. When did his summary of transmission mechanism of heredity come out? 5. What did he do after he had left Columbia? 6. When did Morgan win the Nobel prize? 7. What did he receive the Copley Medal for?

Ex. 4. Insert prepositions where necessary and read the sentences aloud.

A
1. Morgan was an authority . . . embriology and related branches . . . science. 2. His interest . . . pure science was striking. 3. He early got interested . . . applied science. 4. Morgan did embriology . . . W. K. Brooks. 5. He carried . . . extensive studies . . . (the field . . . ) genetics. 6. His work . . . botany came to centre . . . general problems . . . species. 7. A group . . . graduate students and postgraduates is . . . work . . . this problem. 8. His observations formed a basis . . . a complete theory. 9. All subsequent work . . . genetics has been based . . . reasoning and the evidence provided . . . Morgan's school. 10. Morgan was awarded a Nobel prize . . . physiology . . . his outstanding discoveries . . . the laws of heredity.

B
11. My manager is an authority . . . genetics (theoretical physics, chemistry, etc.). 12. As to me, I am interested . . . biology (statistics, mechanics, mathematics, etc.). 13. My brother showed interest . . . geology (zoology, archaeology, art, etc.) while an undergraduate. 14. Now his interest is centred . . . problems . . . biochemical processes. 15. I do my postgraduate work . . . the Institute . . . Zoology . . . Leningrad. I did my undergraduate work . . . the University . . . professor Black. 16. One of my associates was awarded the Lenin prize . . . botany . . . his important contribution. 17. The theoretical staff . . . our department are . . . work summarizing the results . . . their calculations. 18. I am expected to base my investigation . . . experimental evidence and theoretical reasoning. 19. His studies . . . Dr. Brown formed a basis . . . further investigation . . . (the field . . . ) botany. 20. He returned . . . his work . . . 1967.

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions. Pay attention to the verb take.

1. Where have you taken your degree? 2. When are you going to take your holiday? 3. Who took the first prize in the last game? 4. Do you take interest in art? 5. Does your friend take any interest in science? 6. How long did it take you to translate the paper? 7. Do your experiments take much time? 8. How long will it take you to get through with your experiment? 9. Did it take you long to get ready for your exam in German? 10. When are you going to take your examination in English? 11. When did your friend take post-graduate studies? 12. When did you decide to take up biology (chemistry, physics, botany, embriology) as your field? 13. Do you take an active part in the seminars which are held in your laboratory? 14. Where do you take your postgraduate course?


Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences using the verb take.

1. Она очень интересуется исследовательской работой. 2. Мой опыт занял три часа. 3. Сколько времени нужно, чтобы закончить (to complete) опыт? 4. Сколько вам потребовалось времени, чтобы доехать до (get to) Новосибирска? 5. Кто снял показания (the readings)? 6. Она еще не сдавала экзамена по (in) физике (химии и т. д.). 7. Когда он поступил в аспирантуру? 8. Она решила поступить в аспирантуру. 9. Когда он занялся физиологией (географией, медициной, наукой)? 10. Я пойду в отпуск в июле. 11. Он не принимал участия в обсуждении этого вопроса. 12. Проверка данных берет у меня много времени. 13. Ему потребовалось два месяца для того, чтобы собрать (mount) установку (device, apparatus, assembly).


Ex. 7. Translate the following sentences using the verbs given in brackets.

A
1. Закончили ли вы свой опыт (finish)? 2. Какой университет вы окончили (graduate)? 3. Он окончил школу 7 лет назад (leave). 4. Они закончили читать книгу (finish+ gerund). 5. Оратор (the speaker) закончил, выразив благодарность (express gratitude to) аудитории (the audience) (finish+ by+ gerund). 6. Заседание кончается в 5 часов (be over).

В
7. Он проводит много времени за чтением (spend . . . in). 8. Я провожу исследования в лаборатории (carry on research, do research). 9. Заведующий (the manager) провел меня в свой кабинет (show somebody to). 10. Секретарь провел меня по всем лабораториям (take somebody round, show somebody round). 11. Мы проводим много опытов (perform, do, make, carry on). 12. Я уезжаю (leave) очень рано. Не приходите провожать меня (see somebody off).

С
13. Моя дочь занимается в музыкальной школе (study). 14. Занимается ли он английским (study)? 15. Профессор X. занимается проблемами твердого тела (be engaged in, investigate, study). 16. Мой друг будет заниматься физикой в институте (take up, do, study). 17. Занимается ли он в аспирантуре (take a postgraduate course, do a postgraduate course, do postgraduate studies)? 18. Что делает сейчас ваш лаборант (laboratory assistant)? Он занимается подготовкой к опыту (be busy+ gerund). 19. Ученый занимается научной работой (be engaged in, do research). 20. Наша лаборатория занимается интересными исследованиями (be engaged in, do research). 21. Занимается ли ваш брат спортом (go in for)? 22. Он занимается химией в университете (study, do).

D
23. Он читает лекции в университете (give, deliver). 24. Много ли вы читаете (read)? 25. Он прочитал доклад (read a paper).

Е
26. Он сделал грубую (bad) ошибку (make).
27. Когда он сделает свое сообщение (give a talk)?
28. Он не сделал упражнения (do).

F
29. Моя дочь поступила в школу в прошлом году (go). 30. Я поступил в университет (enter). 31. Он поступил в научный кружок (join). 32. Они поступили на работу в наш институт (come to work, begin working). 33. Когда вы поступили в аспирантуру (take up the postgraduate course)? 34. Я не знаю, как поступить (what to do).


Ex. 8. Complete the following sentences and say them fluently.

Model:
1. My scientific adviser was awarded . . .
2. My scientific adviser was awarded the Lenin prize for his outstanding contribution to plasma physics.

1. My wife graduated from . . . 2. My interests centre on . . . 3. The chief subject of . . . 4. I base my experiments on . . . 5. My scientific adviser is the author of . . . 6. He is an authority on . . . 7. Our team makes a thorough analysis of . . . 8. I carry on . . .


Ex. 9. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

Model:
1. I know (that) your Institute trains postgraduate students.
2. a) Yes, you are right. Besides our Institute does research.
b) No, I see you are misinformed. Our Institute does not train postgraduate students. It trains only undergraduates.

1. We know that the evolution theory is generally accepted in this country. 2. I found that almost all researchers combine activities in research with social work. 3. I believe you base your experiments on theoretical considerations. 4. The head of your laboratory is an authority on mathematics (physics, biology, etc.), isn't he?


Ex. 10. Insert one of the words given in brackets and read the sentences aloud.

Model:
1. I find the subject of your work very. . . . I got . . . in the subject of your work (interesting, interested).
2. I find the subject of your work very interesting. I got interested in the subject of your work.

1. Mathematics is very. . . . I am greatly . . . in it (interesting, interested). 2. The sight of the mountains was very. . . . I got much . . . by it (impressive, impressed). 3. I got deeply . . . in chemistry. I find it very . . . (interesting, interested). 4. The number of people present was. . . . Everybody was . . . by his speech (impressive, impressed). 5. I am really deeply . . . in the results of your experiments. They are very . . . (interesting, interested).


Ex. 11. React to the following statements. Fill in the blanks with interest, interesting, interested. Read the sentences in pairs.

1. - I got interested in the subject of your work.
- I am glad you found it . . . .
2. - My teacher encouraged my interest in physics when I was at school.
- It's good that you got . . . in physics while still at school.
3. - Did you find this book interesting?
- Yes, I read it with great . . . from the first page.


Ex. 12. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Эта статья весьма интересна. 2. Меня интересует его мнение. 3. Цифра была очень внушительной. 4. На меня оказало большое впечатление его сообщение. 5. Его не интересует проблема, о которой идет речь (the problem in question). 6. Я нахожу, что проблема, о которой идет речь, очень интересна.


Ex. 13. Answer the following questions using the adverb or the adjective given in brackets.

Model:
a) 1. Are you interested in biology? (great, greatly).
2. Yes, I am greatly interested in it.
b) 1. Do you take any interest in experimental physiology? (great, greatly).
2. Yes, I take great interest in it.

1. Did you study the phenomena involved in metabolism? (thorough, thoroughly). 2. Do you make a study of these processes? (thorough, thoroughly). 3. Have you made any mention of our work? (brief, briefly). 4. Did Pavlov's work influence experimental physiology? (profound, profoundly). 5. Do your results show agreement with the theory? (good, well). 5. Did Morgan's works contribute to the development of natural sciences? (large, largely). 7. Did Morgan make any contribution to our knowledge of heredity? (great, greatly). 8. Does your son take any interest in physics? (great, greatly). 9. Has the speaker mentioned your experiments? (brief, briefly). 10. Have you checked your data? (thorough, thoroughly). 11 Does your hypothesis agree with the theory? (good, well). 12. Are you interested in research? (deep, deeply).


Ex. 14. Translate into English.

1. Он автор многих книг и статей. 2. Кто основатель современной физики? 3. Он директор нашего института. 4. Он специалист по этому вопросу. 5. Согласились (accept) ли вы с его точкой зрения? 6. Он не принял моего предложения. 7. Признана (accept) ли эта теория? 8. Его заслуги общепризнаны (recognize). 9. Чья теория теперь общепризнана? 10. Законы Ньютона общеизвестны. 11. Он провел тщательный анализ. 12. Он тщательно проанализировал результаты измерений. 13. Он выработал законченную теорию. 14. Когда вы закончите свою диссертацию (thesis). 15. Когда вы закончили университет? 16. Мои опыты далеко не (far from) закончены. 17. Проводите ли вы экспериментальные исследования? 18. Проведенные мною опыты дали (provide with) мне необходимые данные. 19. Я основываю свои рассуждения на заключениях, которые дает (provide) общая теория. 20. Я занимаюсь под руководством профессора Н. 21. У него большой интерес к биологии. 22. Его интерес к физике проявился, когда он учился в школе. 23. Они интересуются физикой. Физика очень интересный предмет. 24. Я заинтересовался его опытом. Он проводит очень интересные опыты. 25. Моего руководителя назначили директором нашего института. 26. Его назначение очень важно для нашего института. 27. Он известен как хороший певец. 28. Он известен как крупный специалист по (в области) общей химии. 29. Они знамениты своими работами по некоторым специальным вопросам теории жидкостей.


Ex. 15. Describe how Morgan came to be the founder of modern genetics.

Use: show interest in . . . ; graduate from . . . ; study under . . . ; be appointed professor of . . . ; carry on (out) experimental studies; centre on; analyze thoroughly; lay the main outlines of the theory of . . . ; form a basis for . . . ; constitute the chief subject of one's research; be the most important step in . . . ; list the new principles of . . . ; be awarded a prize; win a medal.


Ex. 16. Speak about your own research.

Use: centre on . . . ; be concerned with . . . ; collect data; make observations; measure; calculate; investigate; arrange new facts; read (give) a paper; joint paper; agree with . . . ; work under . . . ; the method (approach) proved fruitful.


Ex. 17. Give a talk about the problems studied at your laboratory.

Use: interest is concentrated on . . . ; explain (provide explanation of . . . ); analyze thoroughly; form a basis for . . . ; study the nature of . . . ; provide evidence far, . . . ; be an important step in the development of . . . ; be responsible for . . . .


Text 4
FREDERIC HOPKINS
Hopkins, a famous English biochemist, was born in 1861 at Eastbourne, East Sussex, in England He was educated at private schools and took his first training in the Laboratory of Consulting Chemists. In 1888 he began his medical studies at Guy's hospital. He combined activities in research with clinical work and after taking his degree at the University of London became a member of the staff of the medical school of Guy's hospital. In 1899 he was called by Sir M. Foster to Cambridge where he joined the illustrious school of physiology which Foster was founding. In 1913 he became the first professor of the newly created department of Physical Chemistry at Cambridge.
He early realized that one of the urgent needs of biochemistry then entering its modem" phase under Felix Hoppe-Seyler and Franz Hofmeister was accurate knowledge of the proteins.
He became known internationally for his important researches and discoveries in the fields of biochemistry and dietetics. His experiments with rats were the first of their kind that were scientifically planned and based on sound theoretical considerations. He succeeded (in association with S. W. Cole) in isolating from proteins the amino-acid triptophane.
In 1906, while a reader in chemical physiology he announced the importance of vitamins as essential constituents of the health diet. In 1912 he published a report clearing up a few of the mysteries of nutrition He did not himself isolate any of the vitamins of which he studied the effects - chiefly A and В - but he is rightly regarded as the father of vitamin chemistry
In collaboration with the late Sir W. Fletcher he did important research into chemical changes that accompany muscle contraction. He was a pioneer in the physiological study of muscular activity and carbohydrate metabolism. He laid the foundation of our knowledge of the chemistry of muscular contraction by his research into lactic acid production in muscle.
In 1921 Hopkins made his most fundamental contribution by isolating from living tissues the sulphur-containing depeptide glutation and by showing its importance for the oxidations in living cells.
In 1929 he was joint winner of the Nobel prize in physiology for his contribution on growth-promoting vitamins. He held many honorary degrees and memberships in numerous societies and academies.


Exercises
Ex. 1. Read the sentences aloud and translate them into Russian paying special attention to the parts in italics.

1. Hopkins was educated at a private school. 2. He took his first training in the Laboratory of Consulting Chemist. 3. He combined activities in research with clinical work. 4. After taking his degree at the University of London he became a member of the staff of the medical school. 5. He joined the illustrious school of physiology which Foster was founding. 6. He early realized the urgent needs of biochemistry. 7. Biochemistry was then entering its modern phase, under F. Hoppe-Seyler and F. Hofmeister. 8. In 1906 while a reader in chemical physiology he announced the importance of vitamins. 9. In collaboration with the late Sir W. Fletcher he did research into the chemical changes that accompany muscle contraction. 10. In 1929 he was joint winner of the Nobel prize in physiology for his contribution on growth-promoting vitamins. 11. He held many honorary degrees.


Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.

1. Where did Hopkins receive his primary education? 2. Where did he take his first training? (Where did he do his first studies?). 3. Was he engaged in any activities outside his research? 4. Where did he take his degree? 5. What hospital did he work at? 6. What

did M. Foster propose to him? 7. What was one of the urgent needs of biochemistry at that time? 8. What was Hopkins famous for? 9. In what field of science did he work? 10. Why can Hopkins be considered the father of vitamin chemistry? 11. What research did he do in collaboration with Fletcher? 12. In what areas was he a pioneer? 13. What fundamental contribution did ho make in 1921? 14. What won Hopkins the Nobel prize? 15. Did he hold any scientific degrees?


Ex. 3. Confirm the statements below. Use words and expressions from the text instead of those in italics.

Model: 1. To my knowledge, Hopkins was a distinguished scientist.
2. Yes, (that's right; you're right; exactly, etc.) he was a famous biochemist.
1. As far as I know, Hopkins received education at private schools. 2. He did his first studies in the laboratory of Consulting. Chemist, didn't he? 3. From what I know, he took up his medical studies in 1888. 4. I know that Hopkins not only did research but also carried out clinical work. 5. If I am not mistaken, Hopkins graduated from the University of London. 6. As far as I remember, after graduation Hopkins came to work at the medical school of Guy's hospital. 7. He became world-famous for his researches and discoveries, didn't he? 8. If I remember right, working together with W. Fletcher Hopkins studied chemical changes that accompany muscle contraction. 9. As far as I know, in 1929 he shared the Nobel prize in medicine and physiology with Eijkman for his contribution on growth-promoting vitamins.


Ex. 4. Answer the following questions. Use one of the verbs:
explain, realize, graduate, join, invite instead of those in italics.

Model:
1. Would you like to become a member of our club?
2. Yes, I would gladly join it, if possible.

1. Where did Hopkins take his degree? 2. When did he become a member of the staff of a medical school? 3. Why was he called to Oxford? 4. Was he aware of
the importance and urgency of his work? 5. Did his report clear up some facts concerning nutrition?


Ex. 5. Insert prepositions where necessary and read the sentences aloud.

1. Hopkins was educated . . . private schools. 2. His activities . . . research were generally recognized. 3. . . . 1899 he joined . . . the illustrious school . . . physiology. 4. Biochemistry was then entering . . . its modern phase. 5. Hopkins became world-known . . . important researches and discoveries . . . the field . . . biochemistry. 6. He based his experiments . . . sound theoretical considerations. 7. He succeeded . . . isolating a new substance. 8. He was a reader . . . chemical physiology. 9. He did important research . . . the chemical changes that accompany muscle contraction. 10. He was joint winner . . . the Nobel prize . . . physiology . . . his contributions . . . growth-promoting vitamins. 11. My supervisor's activities . . . experimental work are well-known. 12. Dr. N. combines deep theoretical knowledge . . . great experimental skill. 13. My wife joined . . . the laboratory two years ago. 14. While a student I joined . . . a learned society. 15. My scientific adviser became known . . . his paper issued . . . 1960. 16 . . . what field do you do research? 17. Do you base your work . . . evidence provided . . . experiment? 18. Last year I succeeded . . . passing my entrance examination and was admitted to the Institute.


Ex. 6. React to the wrong statements below using some of the following introductory phrases: you are not quite right, you are mistaken, you are wrong, it is not quite so, it would be wrong to say so, I can't agree with you, just the reverse.

Model: 1. If I a not mistaken, Hopkins was a
well-known chemist.
2. No, it's not quite so. As far as I know (as a matter of fact) Hopkins wasn't a chemist. He was engaged in biochemistry and was a famous biochemist.
1. Can you clear up one point to me? Did Hopkins really come to work at the medical school of Guy's hospital before graduation? 2. I believe that Hopkins was only engaged in theoretical work. Is it really so? 3. I thought it was Hopkins who invited Forster to Cambridge. 4. I was of the opinion that biochemistry enters its modern phase nowadays. 5. To my mind, Hopkins' experiments with rats (on rats) are of no interest to us. 6. As far as I know Hopkins is regarded as the father of vitamin chemistry. This gave me the idea that Hopkins must have isolated some of the vitamins himself.
Ex. 7. Give an extensive answer to the following questions. Use the words in brackets.


Mоde1:
1. Is your laboratory only engaged in theoretical research? (experimental work; train postgraduate students; combine).
2. . No, it's not quite so. Our laboratory combines activities in theoretical research with experimental work. Besides it trains postgraduate students.

1. What did your friend do after he graduated from the University? (call; become a member of the staff; work in the field of . . . ; combine research with teaching). 2. Why have you decided to take up biology (physics, chemistry, astronomy, physiology, botany, etc.) as your field? (while at school; join; give the matter a thorough consideration).
3. How is your work progressing? (quite well; succeed in . . . ; base; work in collaboration with . . . ; joint paper).
4. Is your scientific adviser a prominent scientist? (yes, rather; hold honorary degrees; make a contribution to . . . ;
do research into . . . ; create}. 5. Have you got much work to do at present? (yes, rather; urgent; take postgraduate studies; combine one's studies with research). 6. How did your co-worker learn English? (by studying hard; join).


Ex. 8. Answer the following questions. Use: make a contribution (to); make an impression; make a mistake; make a study of . . . ; make use of . . . ; make experiments;
K. make и summary; make a discovery; make a contribution

.
Model:
1. I know that you have recently published a paper. What kind of data did you use there?
2. I have made use of our latest experimental data.

1. Did Niels Bohr contribute to the study of atomic structure? 2. What insects did Morgan experiment with? 3. Did he discover anything important? 4. Did you study all the literature in your field before writing your thesis? 5. Which of the books you read impressed you most? 6. Did you summarize all the data at the end of your paper? 7. Are there any mistakes in your English dictation?


Ex. 9. Translate the following sentences using the verb make.

1. Он проводит исследование (investigation). 2. Составьте список участников конференции. 3. Я поставил ряд опытов. 4. Позвольте мне подвести итог (summary). 5. Она сделала две ошибки. 6. Он сделал важное открытие. 7. Когда вы будете делать измерение?8. Бора назначили профессором теоретической физики.9. Астрономы ведут наблюдения. 10. Вам надо было сделать вычисления сначала (first). 11. Бор много сделал для науки. 12. Какое предложение (suggestion) вы хотите сделать?


Ex. 10. Answer the following questions using the verb do.

1. Have you got much work to do? 2. Have you done your exercises? 3. I wish to know what research you do. 4. You do postgraduate studies under Dr. Petrov, don't you? 5. Where did you do mathematics? 6. What kind of experiments do you do? ("make experiments" is also possible).


Ex. 11. Translate the following sentences using the verb do.

1. Он изучает физику (ботанику и пр.). 2. Он делает уроки. 3. Я занимаюсь в аспирантуре. 4. Мне надо сделать много (a lot of) работы. 5. Ей надо сделать много упражнений. 6. Они проводят исследования (research).


Ex. 12. Insert the verbs do or make and read the sentences aloud.

1. I've got a lot of work to. . . . 2. He's got a lot of measurements to. . . . 3. I've a suggestion to . . . . 4. She's got many exercises to. . . . 5. I've got a lot of calculations to. . . . 6. May I . . . a suggestion? 7. He is . . . interesting research in fiber optics. 8. They are tired of . . . these endless calculations. 9. Did he . . . physics under Dr. Petrov? 10. Are you . . . any experiments at present?


Ex. 13. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Use the verbs do or make.

1. Я заинтересовался проведенной вами работой.2. Я провел мало опытов. 3. Какие заключения вы сделали? 4. Он не сделал ошибок в своих вычислениях. 5. Он сделал важное открытие. 6. Он получил Ленинскую премию за сделанное им открытие. 7. На уроках английского языка мы делаем много упражнений.


Ex. 14. Translate the following sentences. Use the words in italics.

call
1. Как называется этот элемент? 2. Их пригласили в Лондонский университет читать лекции по физике и химии. 3. Позовите, пожалуйста, секретаря.

joint

4. Они написали совместную статью. 5. В результате совместных усилий (efforts) ученые решили (solved) эту трудную задачу. 6. Они сделали совместный доклад. 7. Эти два профессора получили Ленинскую премию за общую работу.

Hold

8. Он имел несколько почетных званий. 9. Собрание происходило в конференц-зале (conference-hall). (Give a passive construction). 10. Этот закон справедлив (имеет силу) только для идеальных газов.


Ex. 15. Translate into English.

1. Я начал изучать химию в институте. 2. Моя жена стала заниматься химией под руководством профессора 'Иванова. 3. Они начали работать в клинике два года тому назад. 4. Он совмещает исследовательскую работу с работой в клинике. 5. Совмещает ли он научную деятельность с педагогической (teaching)? 6. Инертные газы не соединяются с кислородом. 7. Его пригласили в Московский университет читать лекции по биологии.8. По окончании университета он стал преподавателем.9. Окончив университет, он поступил (join) в нашу лабораторию. 10. Окончив школу, она поступила (enter) в институт. 11. Поступила ли она на физический факультет? 12. Это одна из самых неотложных задач современной биохимии. 13. У меня срочная работа (я должен сделать срочную работу). 14. Ньютон знаменит тем, что он открыл законы движения. 15. Гюйгенс известен тем, что он разработал волновую теорию света (wave theory of light). 16. Он основывал свои опыты на теоретических предпосылках. 17. Ему удалось выделить (isolate) новое вещество. 18. Им удалось разъяснить некоторые оптические явления. 19. Читая лекции по медицине, он разъяснял (make clear) значение витаминов. 20. Будучи студентом (когда я был студентом), я занимался физикой. 21. В сотрудничестве со своим другом он провел важные исследования химических реакций, сопровождающих сокращение мускулов (muscle contraction). 22. Он исследовал причины этих изменений. 23. Хопкинс внес большой вклад в науку, показав значение витаминов для человеческого организма (human organism). 24. Он получил Нобелевскую премию по медицине и биологии совместно с Эйкманом. 25. Я написал совместную статью с доктором Казаковым. 26. Они провели совместное исследование этих новых полимерных материалов (polymer materials).


Ex. 16. a) Say a few words about Hopkins. Describe his scientific career before he became internationally known.

Use: be born in . . . ; be educated at . . . ; take one's training in . . . ; take one's degree at . . . ; become a member of the staff of . . . ; be called (invited) to . . . by . . . ;
join the school of physiology; combine activities in research with . . . ; realize that . . . ; have accurate knowledge of . . . .

b) Speak about Hopkins's chief contribution to science.

Use: become internationally known for . . . ; base experiments on sound theoretical considerations; succeed in . . . ; clear up . . . ; in collaboration with . . . ; do research
into . . . ; lay the foundation of . . . ; make one's most fundamental contribution by . . . ; be joint winner of . . . for . . . ; hold honorary degrees.


Ex. 17. Make up a short talk about your research. Use the questions below as a guide.

1. Where did you receive education? 2. Did you join any scientific (learned) society while at the Institute? 3. Where did you take your first training in . . . ? 4. When did you graduate from. the Institute? 5. What Institute did you come to work at after graduation? 6. What activities are you engaged in at present? 7. In what field of science do you carry on research? 8. What do you base your experiments (calculations, theoretical considerations) on (upon)? 9. Do you combine theoretical research with applied studies? 10. How do you plan your experiments? 11. Do you work alone or in collaboration with your fellow workers (colleagues)? 12. Can you tell us what the urgent needs of biochemistry (physics, physiology, geology, mathematics, botany, astronomy, etc.) are nowadays?


SUPLEMENT

LIST OF WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS WHICH CAN BE USED WHEN SPEAKING

a) About the Head of a Laboratory

be a well-known (distinguished, prominent, outstanding, famous) scientist; be known (distinguished, famous) for . . . ; be engaged in (different activities); be appointed (elected, made) director (head, manager, professor) of . . . ; hold the position of director (head, manager, professor); be at the head of (head, run, be in charge of) an Institute (laboratory, research team, etc.); hold seminars, give lectures (course of lectures) in physics (chemistry, biology, etc.); give a lecture (talk, communication) on . . . ; go on an expedition (tour, trip); contribute (make a contribution) to . . . ; do important (outstanding, excellent, etc.) research in (into, of) . . . ;
make a thorough (complete, detailed, accurate) study of . . . ; advance (propose, develop, put forward, suggest) an idea (hypothesis, approach, theory); work out an approach (method, explanation); search for (adopt, use, make use of) a new (another, better) approach (technique, method); be generally recognized; win general recognition; win (receive, be awarded) a prize (award) for . . . ;

b) About a Visit to a Research Laboratory

visit; stay for . . . ; be shown around; get acquainted with . . . ; learn; be (get) interested in . . . ; work in collaboration with . . . ; do joint research; exchange opinions on . . . ; be of the same (a different) opinion on . . . ; be impressed by . . . ; enjoy.

c) About Oneself

be born in . . . at (in) . . . ; go to (attend) school; while at school; get interested in . . . ; leave school take entrance examinations; read much (hard) for the examinations; be admitted to . . . ; while in one's first (second, etc.) year; join a students' scientific (learned) society; do physics (biology, etc.); read a paper; attend lectures in (on) . . . ; study under . . . ; graduate from the Institute (University); begin (start) working at . . . ; get an appointment as (position of) a teacher (engineer, junior research worker, laboratory assistant);
join a laboratory; read for one's thesis; collect and arrange data (facts, observations); check one's results;
do (carry on) experiments on (with) . . . ; do theoretical work; do research in (into, of) . . . ; make calculations (observations, measurements) of . . . ; consult one's come to the conclusion; agree; be through with the experimental part of . . . ; succeed in obtaining reliable results (data); work jointly (do joint work) with . . . ; overcome difficulties; be particularly interested in . . . ; take no interest in . . . ; be outside the scope of one's work.


======================== PART II ========================
SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTION






Text 1
CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON
A little over sixty years ago, on January 28, 1902 Andrew Carnegie founded what was to become a new kind of institution for America: the first to be devoted wholly to fundamental research over wide fronts of science, in the most completely basic aspect.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington was established specifically to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery and the application of knowledge to the improvements of mankind.
The scientists in the Department of the Institution have no commitment except to carry on research; they
are not required to teach; they choose their own fields of investigation.
Carnegie Institution scientists in the last sixty years have made far-ranging major contributions to knowledge in almost every field of science. They have been pioneers in opening new areas.
At present, Carnegie Institution's interests are mainly in three broad fields: 1) the form, contents and dynamics of the universe; 2) the structure and evolution of the earth; and 3) the frontiers of biology. Work in these pioneering areas is being carried on in six research centres operated by the Institution and by individual scientists and research teams. The six research centres are:
The Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories which are operated jointly by the Carnegie Institution and California Institute of Technology.
These observatories have two of the world's largest telescopes, and are currently engaged in programs on the physical nature and evolution of celestial bodies, and on the structure and dimensions of the Universe.
The Geophysical Laboratory which conducts broad physiochemical studies on the structure, formation and evolution of the Earth's crust to learn more about the physical and biological history, composition and internal make up of our planet.
The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. Research at this Department covers a wide range of subjects, including the magnetic and electrical fields of the, earth, radio astronomy, geophysics of the earth's crust and mantle, isotope geology, nuclear physics and biosynthesis, touching also on basic genetics.
The Department of Embriology. There are investigated the processes by means of which egg cells develop into individual.
The Department of Biology at Stanford, California. This Department studies photosynthesis, by which plants manufacture organic matter.
The Genetic Research Unit at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Studies undertaken by this Unit consider the mechanisms by which life processes are directed in the living cell.
In addition to its own full-time staff, the Carnegie Institution annually invites selected scientists of inter national reputation to spend time at its research centres, making use of the specialized instruments and facilities of the Institution.
The results of the Institution's research are freely and promptly presented to the world through scientific journals and scientific meetings, lectures and symposia In all, the Institution has published more than 800 titles, some consisting of several volumes.

Exercises
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents to the sentences below paying special attention to the parts in italics.

1. On January 28, 1902 Andrew Carnegie founded what was to become a new kind of institution for America. 2. Carnegie Institution was the first to be devoted wholly to fundamental research over wide fronts of science in the most completely basic aspect. 3. Carnegie Institution was established specifically to encourage investigation, research and discovery. 4. The only 'commitment the scientists of this Institution is to carry on research. 5. They choose their own fields of investigation. 6. The scientists in the last sixty years have made far-ranging major contributions to knowledge. 7. Work in the pioneering areas is being carried on in six research centres. 8. The research centres are operated by the Institution and by individual scientists and research teams. 9. The observatory is currently engaged in programs on the physical nature and evolution of celestial bodies. 10. The Geophysical Laboratory conducts broad studies on the structure, formation and evolution of the earth's crust. 11. Research at this Department covers a wide range of subjects.


Ex. 2. Insert articles where necessary.
A
1. This Institute was established . . . little over sixty years ago. 2. It is one of . . . first institutions of . . . new kind. It was devoted wholly to . . . fundamental research. 3. . . . researchers of . . . Institution have made . . . tremendous progress in. . . . twenty years. 4. This laboratory carries on . . . broad studies on . . . structure of. . . . universe. 5. At . . . present everybody must learn more about. . . . physical history of our planet. 6 . . . research of this laboratory covers . . . wide range of subjects. 7. One of . . . teams works in . . . field of . . . nuclear physics. 8. Another laboratory investigates.. . process of . . . manufacturing . . . organic matter.
В
9. Our Institute was established . . . little over twenty years ago. 10. It was devoted to . . . theoretical research. 11. Our laboratory conducts . . . broad studies in . . . various aspects of . . . inorganic chemistry. 12. What subjects does . . . research carried on at your laboratory cover? 13. Are you familiar with . . . structure of . . . chemical compounds? 14. Have you ever read any books on . . . genetics?


Ex. 3. Answer the questions.

1. Who was the founder of the Carnegie Institution? 2. When was the Carnegie Institution founded? 3. What was the Carnegie Institution to be devoted to? 4. What is the only 'commitment the scientists of the C. I.? 5. What contribution did the scientists of this Institution make to knowledge? 6. How many research centres carry on work in the pioneering areas? 7. How are the research centres operated? 8. What is the observatory currently engaged in? 9. What kinds of studies does the Geophysical Laboratory conduct? 10. Where are biological studies carried on at the Carnegie Institution? 11. Whom does the Carnegie Institution annually invite to carry on studies so as to use the facilities of the Institution? 12. How are the results of the Institution's research presented to the world?


Ex. 4. Give an affirmative or negative answer to the following questions adding some details.

Model:
1. Do you work in the field of molecular physics?
2.
a) Yes, I do.
b) No, I don't. I work in the field of organic chemistry (biology, etc.).
1. Are there any unsolved problems in your field of science? 2. Are you going to work in the laboratory of embriology? 3. Does your research unit investigate the processes occurring in cells? 4. Will you be engaged in a new program of your laboratory research? 5. Were similar investigations carried on in several research centres? 6. Has any progress been made in science in the last fifty years in your field?


Ex. 5. Answer the questions. Note the use of preposition in.

1. What kind of research is your laboratory (team, department, Institute) engaged in? 2. What field of science did N. Bohr (Ch. Darwin, P. L. Capitza) work in? 3. What papers (monographs) has your supervisor published in recent years (months)? 4. What processes in the human organism (cells, nuclei) does your laboratory (research unit) study? 5. In what field of biology (physics, etc.) does your laboratory carry on research?


Ex. 6. Insert prepositions where necessary.

A

1. The only commitment . . . the scientists . . . the Departments . . . Carnegie Institution is to carry on research. 2. Fundamental research is carried on . . . wide fronts . . . science. 3. The knowledge obtained must be applied . . . the improvements . . . mankind. 4. The interests . . . Carnegie Institution are mainly . . . three broad fields. 5. All the research centres are operated . . . the Institution and . . . individual scientists. 6. The Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories are currently engaged . . . programs . . . the physical nature . . . the Universe. 7. This laboratory conducts broad studies . . . the evolution . . . the earth's crust. 8. At present electronics has developed . . . a wide branch . . . science. 9. Selected scientists work . . . the research centres . . . the Carnegie Institution. 10. The results . . . the research work are promptly presented . . . the world . . . scientific publications.11. My adviser devotes much time . . . studying . . . the papers . . . other scientists. 12. Can you apply your knowledge . . . English . . . your work? 13. Our scientists carry . . . research . . . various fields of science. 14. . . . present our interests are mainly . . . two broad fields. 15. Our research team is engaged . . . organizing experiments. 16. Science . . . this country has made a tremendous progress . . . the last fifty years. 17. Usually the field stations are operated . . . the research centres. 18. The laboratory I work . . . conducts broad studies . . . the structure of atomic nuclei. 19. Our laboratory has recently developed . . . a separate Institute. 20. . . . the moment a new fundamental work . . . our team is being presented . . . the world.


Ex. 7. A. Answer the questions as in the model.

Model:
1. When was your laboratory established?
2. As far as I know, it was established in 1957.

1. Who established the law of gravity (the structure of DNA)? 2. When was your laboratory established in the new building of the Institute? 3. What kind of research is encouraged at your Institute? 4. Who encouraged your interests in biology (physics)? 5. What work were you engaged in last year? 6. What laboratories (research units) are engaged in the same program?

B. Summarize your answers in a short talk about your laboratory and your research.


Ex. 8. Confirm the statements according to the model.

Model:
1. This work was a great contribution to science.
2.
a) Yes, indeed it was (a great contribution to science).
b) That's quite right. It was a great contribution to science.

1. The Carnegie Institution was established in order to encourage investigation, research and discovery.
2. The scientists choose their own fields of investigation.
3. At present the Carnegie Institution's interests are mainly in three broad fields. 4. The work is being carried on in six research centres operated by the Institution. 5. The task of the Geophysical Laboratory is to learn more about the physical and biological history of our planet. 6. The observatories are currently engaged in programs on the structure and dimensions of the Universe. 7. The research at the Institution covers a wide range of subjects. 8. Scientists of international reputation are annually invited by the Carnegie Institution to work at its research centres.


Ex. 9. A. Say a few words about Darwin's, Newton's, Bohr's or any other scientist's contribution to science.

U s e: contribute to our understanding of . . . ; make a great contribution to . . . ; discover the law of . . . ; suggest (advance) the idea theory) of . . . .
Model: Darwin made a great contribution to science. He advanced the idea of
the origin of species.

B. Say a few words about your Institute (laboratory, research unit, team).

U s e: be founded, be established; be engaged in; be encouraged; be interested in; conduct; carry ore; perform; learn; make progress in; make use of; make contribution to.

Mоdel: The Institute of Cytology was founded in 1957.


Ex. 10. Answer the following questions.

A

1. When was the Carnegie Institution founded? 2. Who was the founder of this Institution? 3. What is the Institution famous for? 4. Why was it a new kind of institution? 5. What kind of research was it devoted to? 6. What was the Carnegie Institution established for? 7. Are the scientists of the Institution required to teach? 8. Do they choose their own field of investigation? 9. What won them international reputation? 10. What are the interests of the Institution at present? 11. Where is the work being carried on? 12. Who operates the research centres of the Institution? 13. What are these research centres? 14. What kind of work do these research centres carry on? 15. How are the results of the Institution's work made known to the world?

B

16. Will you tell us what the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories are famous for? 17. What is the work of Geographical Laboratory aimed at? 18. What studies does it conduct? 19. Will you characterize the work of the Carnegie Institution? 20. Tell us a few words of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. 21. What is the main problem the Genetic Research Institute is working at now? 22. What do you know about the staff of the Carnegie Institution?

C

23. What Institute do you work at? 24. Where is it situated? 25. When was it founded? 26. Who was the founder of your Institute? 27. What kind of research does your Institute carry on? 28. Does your Institute consist of laboratories or departments? 29. What field of investigations have you chosen? 30. Who manages the Institute you work at? 31. Do you carry on individual research (work)? 32. How many research teams have you got at your laboratory? 33. What is the full-time staff of your Institute? 34. What are the facilities available at your Institute (laboratory)? 35. Is an applied research encouraged at your Institute? 36. Did your supervisor encourage you to read a paper at the conference? 37. What theory is your experiment based on? 38. What methods do you apply in your research? 39. Are there any scientists of international reputation working at your Institute? 40. Does your research cover a wide range of subjects? 41. What problems are you going to touch on in your thesis?

D

42. What is the subject of your thesis? 43. When did you get interested in the problem? 44. Who encouraged your interest in the problem? 45. Who advised you to take up this problem? 46. What is the aim of your study (research)? 47. What kind of work is it: experimental or theoretical? 48. How long have you been working at the problem? 49. How many chapters (parts) do you plan to have in your thesis? 50. When are you going to read your thesis?


Ex. 11. Agree to the statements below using some of the following introductory phrases: so it is; of course, it is; it is really; your are quite right; I quite agree with yon, etc.

Model:
1. As far as I know, Carnegie Institution is a pioneering Institution.
2. Indeed, the Carnegie Institution is a pioneering Institution.

A

1. To my mind, this Institution is very important. 2. As far as I can judge, the Carnegie Institution is established specifically to encourage investigation and discovery. 3. It seems to me that the scientists at the Institution have no commitment except to carry on research. 4. It is said that at present Carnegie Institution's interests are mainly in three broad fields. 5. As far as I know, there are several departments at this Institution. 6. The most important work is carried on by the Geophysical Laboratory.

B

7. I hear you work at a research institute. 8. They say you carry on a very interesting research. 9. As far as I know, your field of research is chemistry (physics, biology, etc.). 10. It seems to me your Institute is one of the oldest in this country. 11. It is widely recognized that the publication of scientific papers is necessary. 12. I think fundamental research should preceed the applied one.


Ex. 12. Say a few words about your research. Use words and phrases such as:

a) conduct studies (research, investigation, experiment);
apply one's knowledge (a new method, technique, theory);
choose one's speciality (topic, field, method, technique).
b) fundamental research (study, discovery, investigation, knowledge); basic (main, chief) problem (aspect, method, contribution); pioneering area (work, research, investigation); scientific journal (meeting, lecture, publication).


Ex. 13. Translate into English.

A

1. Когда был основан Фонд Карнеги? 2. Кто был основателем этого учреждения? 3. Какой работой занимается это учреждение? 4. С какой целью оно было создано? 5. Чем занимаются научные работники этого учреждения? 6. Какой вклад сделали они в развитие науки за последние 60 лет? 7. Какие три области знаний интересуют Фонд Карнеги в настоящее время? 8. Кто руководит исследовательскими центрами? 9. Каких проблем касаются сейчас исследовательские центры Фонда Карнеги?

В

10. Институт цитологии Академии наук СССР был создан в 1957 году профессором Насоновым. 11. В настоящее время вся работа этого института проводится десятью лабораториями. 12. Исследования ведут как отдельные ученые, так и научно-исследовательские группы. 13. Наша группа сейчас работает по программе (изучения) физики твердых тел. 14. Каждый ученый стремится узнать как можно больше в своей области. 15. Вам следует рассмотреть эту проблему и изучить ее особенности (peculiarities). 16. Штат нашего института не очень велик. 17. Все лаборатории могут пользоваться оборудованием, которое принадлежит (to belong) институту. 18. Результаты исследований института публикуются в научных журналах, представляются на научных конференциях. 19. Недавно была опубликована работа профессора П.


Ex. 14. Give a talk about your Institute using the following list of expressions as a plan.

Model: The Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute was founded in. . . . It is named after
. . . because he . . . .

1. The Institute of Physics (Chemistry, High Molecular Compounds, Mathematics, Biology, etc.). 2. The Institute is named after. . . . 3. The Institute is situated in . . . street (in . . . lane (alley), on (in) . . . avenue, on the . . . square, on . . . embankment). 4. The Institute occupies a large (small, new, old, multistoried) building (house), several buildings. 5. The Institute was established (founded, built, erected) by . . . in . . . (date). 6. The Institute is headed (run) by. . . . 7. The staff of the Institute consists of researchers (research workers: senior research workers, junior research workers) and laboratory assistants. 8. The Scientific Council of the Institute consists of the chairman of the Scientific Council, the learned secretary and several members. 9. A scientist (researcher) may be characterized as prominent (well-known, famous, outstanding, hard-working, clever, diligent, industrious, etc.).



Text 2
LABORATORY FOR THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT
(JOHN B. PIERCE FOUNDATION)

The three-story red-brick building on Congress Avenue in New Haven, Connecticut, is next to the Yale University Medical School.
The legend on the column-supported architrave reads: "John B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory". The bronze statue standing on the triangular patch of lawn to the right of the building is of John B. Pierce himself, the American Standard Radiator Company president who gave his estate to start the foundation which bears his name.
"Bio-engineering" is the key word in the activities and interests of the Pierce Laboratory denoting its basic orientation towards the fields of physiology, biophysics, biochemistry and engineering research. In 1962 a grant from the National Institute of Health made possible an expansion of the original two-story structure in New Haven, completed in 1933, and a one-story ''annex added in 1937 to a three-story building.
The original building contained two test houses designed for the simultaneous study of building construction and physiological comfort.
These facilities still exist with considerable modernization. The present facilities contain laboratories for biophysics, environmental physiology, bioclimatology and psychology as well as computer and data reduction centre.
Under the guidance of Dr. H. T. Hammel, head of the Physiology Laboratory, experiments have been under way to determine the effect of heating and cooling upon the brain. These experiments have been performed at the Laboratory upon monkeys, rats and dogs.
In the Bio-engineering Laboratory, directly headed by Dr. Gadge, work is going forward under the direction of Dr. Arend Bouhuys on the effects of dust on guinea pig lungs.
Closely allied in its work with the Yale University Medical School (many of the Pierce Laboratory staff hold faculty appointments and participate in the Yale teaching and research programs) much of the Laboratory's effort
55

has direct educational results, especially in its concepts of bio-engineering.
Many technical papers and reports result from the research accomplished at the Laboratory and a notable number of papers have appeared in publications, having been presented at national meetings of the Society.


Exercises
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents to the sentences below paying special attention to the parts in italics.

1. John B. Pierce started the foundation which bears his name. 2. "Bio-engineering" is the key word in the activities and interests of the laboratory. 3. The basic orientation of the laboratory is towards physiology.4. The original building contained two test houses.5. These facilities still exist with considerable modernization. 6. Under the guidance of Dr. H. I. Hammel, head of the Physiology Laboratory, experiments have been under way. 7. Many of the Pierce Laboratory Staff hold faculty appointments and participate in the Yale teaching and research programs. 8. Many technical papers result from the research accomplished at the Laboratory. 9. A notable number of papers have appeared in publications having been presented at national meetings of the Society.


Ex. 2. Insert articles where necessary.

A

1. . . . three-story building is next to . . . Yale University Medical School. 2. . . . statue of John Pierce is standing to . . . right of . . . building. 3. John B. Pierce started . . . foundation of . . . Institution. 4. . . . grant from . . . National Institution of Health made possible . . . expansion of . . . original two-story building. 5. . . . present facilities contain many different laboratories. 6. These facilities still exist with . . . considerable modernization.

B

7. Our Institute occupies . . . five-story building. 8. On . . . left of . . . building of . . . Admiralty there is . . . bronze statue of Peter I. 9. What can you say about . . . activities of your laboratory? 10. . . . expansion of this Institute is . . . problem of . . . nearest future. 11. Who is . . . head of your Institute? 12. Dr. N. works on . . . effects of X-rays on . . . human beings.


Ex. 3. Answer the following questions. Note prepositions in the questions and in your answers.

1. How many research Institutions are there in Leningrad? 2. Where is your Institute situated (district, street)? 3. When was the building of your Institute built? 4. How many laboratories are there at your Institute? 5. What kind of research does your laboratory carry on (is carried on in your laboratory)? 6. Who is the head of your laboratory? 7. Where do you publish the results of your investigations?


Ex. 4. Answer the following questions adding some introductory phrases as in the model.

Model:
a)
1. (As far as I know) Niels Bohr was a biologist.
2. Oh no, I am afraid you are wrong. To my knowledge, he was a physicist.
b)
1. You go to your Institute by the underground (metro), don't you?
2. Not exactly. I go by the underground first and then change for a bus.
с)
1. Are you satisfied with the results of your experiment?
2. Not quite, I hoped to obtain more interesting data.

1. You are a specialist in literature, aren't you? 2. Does your laboratory (research unit) carry on any joint research with some other laboratories? 3. Does the whole staff of the laboratory participate in one research project? 4. Is your Institute situated in the old district of the city? 5. Does the Institute occupy several buildings? 6. Have any new laboratories been formed at your Institute in recent years?


Ex. 5. Give English equivalents to the following sentences. Use the words from the text.

1. Здание нашего института расположено недалеко (рядом) от университета. 2. Институт цитологии АН СССР был основан профессором Насоновым в 1957 году. 3. В настоящее время наш институт занимает несколько зданий. 4. Наша лаборатория имеет современное оборудование для проведения исследований на высоком уровне. 5. Все сотрудники лаборатории участвуют в работе над (по) повой программой. 6. В лаборатории проводятся важные исследования. 7. Работа нашей группы связана с исследованиями, которые проводит биохимическая лаборатория. 8. В прошлом году сотрудники лаборатории опубликовали ряд интересных статей.


Ex. 6. Confirm the following statements as in the model using synonyms to the words: appoint, contain, start, perform, be educated, activity, guidance, modern, in addition to

Model:
1. As far as I remember the foundation of Leningrad was begun in the XVII century.
2. You are quite right, the foundations of Leningrad was started in 1703.

1. The study of Halley's Comet is made under the direction of most prominent astronomers. 2. The experiments were carried on successfully. 3. The date of the congress was settled several months ago. 4. Gh. Darwin was well taught at school as well as at the University.5. In 1837 Darwin had begun a notebook in which he entered facts concerning natural selection. 6. Our laboratory has got some new equipment besides a sound-proof chamber. 7. The equipment appeared to be quite up-to-date. 8. There are many useful data in this paper.


Ex. 7, Insert prepositions where necessary.

A
1. Laboratory for the Human Environment is a three-story building . . . Congress Avenue. 2. The statue . . . the founder . . . the Laboratory is . . . the right . . . building. 3. Bio-engineering is the main branch . . . the activities . . . the Laboratory. 4. The basic orientation . . . this laboratory is . . . the fields of physiology, biochemistry and allied sciences. 5. Two test houses are designed . . . the simultaneous study . . . building construction and physiological comfort. 6. Experiments are . . . way . . . the guidance of Dr. Hammel. 7. The aim . . . the experiments is to determine the effect . . . heating and cooling . . . the brain. 8. They study the effects . . . X-rays . . . monkeys. 9. The Laboratory staff participate . . . the Yale research program. 10. The laboratory is closely allied . . . its work . . . the Yale University Medical School. 11. The technical papers which resulted . . . the research appear . . . publications.

B

12. Our laboratory is . . . the third floor . . . the right . . . library. 13. He works . . . Professor P. who is the head . . . this laboratory. 14. . . . the moment some very interesting experiments are . . . way . . . our laboratory. 15. . . . present an experiment . . . the effect of X-rays . . . monkeys is . . . way. 16. A great amount . . . work is carried on . . . the field . . . biochemistry. 17. This chamber is designed . . . nuclei analysis. 18. Our Institute is situated . . . Nevsky Avenue. 19. The work . . . our laboratory is allied . . . that of the chemical laboratory.


Ex. 8. Say a few words about your laboratory (Institute).

U s e: be founded; be started; be engaged in; be interested in; investigate problems; experiment; carry on experiments (research investigations); discuss the results (data);work under the guidance of . . .

.
Ex. 9. Make up a talk with your fellow-students about your laboratory as in the model.

U s e: the basic orientation of the laboratory is . . . ;the present facilities contain . . . ; the staff of our laboratory participates in . . . ; there are several laboratories allied with (in) . . . ; our team (research unit) works under . . . ;the experiments are carried out (performed) . . . ; the installation (the chamber) is designed for . . . .

Model:
1. The Bio-engineering Laboratory is headed by Dr. B. A lot of different experiments are performed at the Laboratory.
2. . As to our laboratory, it is headed by Prof. H. and we carry out experiments in the field of . . . .


Ex. 10. Respond to the statements given below as in the model.

Model:
1. We carry on experimental research. So do I. A also carry on experimental research.
2. I am a biophysicist. So am I (So is he).

1. Our laboratory started a new experiment last week (our research unit). 2. Prof. B. gave an interesting talk on proteins (Dr. H.). 3. He is going to complete his investigations next month (his colleague). 4. The paper contains much important information (the monograph). 5. Our team has accomplished its work (ours). 6. We reported our data at the conference (they).


Ex. 11. Make up a talk with your fellow-student about your (or his, her) laboratory.

U s e: be accomplished; be headed; be performed; be under the guidance; be under way; result from; need expansion; go forward; make possible.


Ex. 12. A. Find out whether your fellow-student: has completed his experiment; has completed his paper; must complete his research by the end of the year; has bought a complete collection of Shakespeare's works.

Model:
1. Have you completed your work?
2. Yes, I have. I completed it last month.

B. Find out whether one's research unit: has adequate facilities to carry on research; has up-to-date (modern) facilities for studies; has any out-of-date facilities; must change (substitute) some facilities; has obtained some new facilities.

Model:
1. Does your laboratory have all modern facilities for research? Has your laboratory got up-to-date equipment?
2. . Yes, it does. Yes, it has. The facilities of our laboratory are quite modern.

C. Find out whether the two laboratories are allied in their investigation, carry
on research in allied fields of science, must ally experimental and theoretical studies.

Model:
1. Are biology and biochemistry allied sciences?
2. Yes, they are. They are rather closely allied.


Ex. 13. Answer the following questions. Work in pairs.

A

1. What does the Laboratory for the Human Environment look like? 2. Where is the Laboratory situated? 3. What does the legend on the architrave read? 4. Where does the statue of John B. Pierce stand? 5. What was J. B. Pierce famous for? 6. Whose name does the Laboratory bear? 7. When was the Laboratory expanded?8. What was added to a three-story building in 1938? 9. What were the test houses designed for? 10. Was the modernization of the old facilities considerable? 11. Who is the head of the Physiology Laboratory? 12. Under whose guidance have the experiments been under way at this laboratory? 13. What was the purpose of these experiments? 14. What were the results of the research performed at the Laboratory? 15. What was presented at national meetings of the Society?
B

16. Where is your Institute situated? 17. What kind of building does your Institute occupy? 18. What is the historical background of your Institute? 19. Whose name does your Institute bear? 20. What is the main orientation of the laboratory you work at? 21. Was your Institute reconstructed or rebuilt recently? 22. How many laboratories does your Institute contain? 23. Who is the head of your laboratory? 24. What kind of experiments do they perform at your laboratory? 25. What laboratory is closely connected with yours in its work? 26. How does the staff of your laboratory participate in the research program of the Institute? 27. How many scientific papers resulted from the research accomplished at your laboratory?


Ex. 14. The statements below are wrong. Disagree with them using: that's wrong; you are wrong; you are not (quite) right; T cannot agree with you (in that); T am afraid you are wrong.

Model:
1. If I remember right, the law of gravitation was established by Galileo.
2. I are afraid you are wrong, it was established by Newton.
1. The Laboratory for the Human Environments does not bear the name of John B. Pierce. 2. To my mind, the basic orientation of this Laboratory is towards the field of mathematics. 3. No о new buildings were added to the Laboratory in 1938. 4. The present facilities of the Laboratory do not contain computer and data reduction centre. 5. As far as I know Dr. Gadge is the heard of the Physiology Laboratory. 6. 1 hear that the staff of the Laboratory has nothing to do with the Yale University Medical School. 7. As far as I know your Institute was founded quite recently. 8. I hear you are not interested in your work. 9. They say you have your laboratory seminars very rarely. 10. It seems to me you have published only a small part of the results obtained.


Ex. 15. Give English equivalents to the following sentences.

A

1. Лаборатория по изучению окружающей человека среды (условий) была основана Джоном Пирсом. 2. Эта лаборатория находится в Нью-Хейвоне, штат Коннектикут, и занимает трехэтажное кирпичное здание на Конгресс-авеню. 3. Лаборатория занимается исследованиями в области психологии, биофизики, биохимии и техники. 4. В 1938 году помещение лаборатории было значительно расширено. 5. Современное помещение содержит несколько различных лабораторий. 6. В физиологической лаборатории работа ведется под руководством доктора Хаммеля. 7. В этой лаборатории проводятся эксперименты на обезьянах, собаках и крысах. 8. Во главе биотехнической лаборатории стоит доктор Гейдж. 9. Штат лаборатории Пирса тесно связан по своей работе с Медицинским колледжем Университета. 10. Сотрудники лаборатории выполняют работы на факультете и ведут там преподавательскую и исследовательскую работу. 11. В результате работы, которую выполняет лаборатория, появляются многочисленные статьи и доклады. 12. Научные доклады (сообщения) обычно делаются на заседаниях Общества.
B

13. Где расположен институт, в котором вы работаете? 14. Наш институт занимает многоэтажное здание в центре города. 15. Основателем нашей лаборатории был академик II. 16. Лаборатория названа его именем. 17. Основное направление в работе нашей лаборатории - изучение строения клетки. 18. Несколько лет тому назад наш институт был расширен, и к нему было пристроено двухэтажное здание. 19. Лаборатория проводит одновременное изучение нескольких физических явлений. 20. Недавно в этой лаборатории проводились опыты по изучению влияния охлаждения на работу мышц. 21. Кто руководит лабораторией № 4? 22. Штат нашей лаборатории не очень большой.23. Ежегодно сотрудники нашего института публикуют большое количество работ в химических журналах. 24. Недавно было сделано два интересных сообщения на конференции.



Ex. 16. Give a talk on your laboratory. Use the words and expressions given below.

1. Laboratory department, team, research unit. Associates, collaborators, co-workers, the chief of . . . , the head of . . . .
Academician, corresponding member, Doctor of Science (D. Sc.), Professor, junior researcher, senior researcher, laboratory assistant (lab. assistant, technician). Equipment, apparatus, chamber, devices, installations, instruments.

2. Modern, up-to-date, out-of-date.
3. Carry on, consist of, work under. Be dealt with, be equipped, be handled, be headed, be operated, be situated.


Text 3
IMPERIAL COLLEGE, LONDON
The Imperial College of Science and Technology is one of the oldest and most important scientific institutes in England. It now forms part of the University of London, and fulfils the dual purpose of teaching students and fostering research in science and technology.
Imperial College began as the Royal College of Science in the middle of the nineteenth century, when it was realized that teaching and pursuing science and its applications was necessary to fully carry out the industrial revolution and keep Britain in the forepost of technological advance. Many famous scientists were associated with the early days of the College, for example Huxley and Wells. Prince Albert, the royal patron, also closely followed scientific work at the College. With the addition of the City and Guilds Institute and the Royal School of Mines, Imperial College acquired large engineering facilities in addition to those for pure scientific research.
Today the main departments are: Physics (of which Professor Blockett is well known), Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Aeronautics, Mining Technology, Chemistry and Mathematics. A large new department is the Biochemical Department, headed by Professor Chain.
Imperial College is fortunate in having several new buildings with many excellent laboratories, and more are being built. A Computer Section develops the facilities of the College's two computers for the use of all departments. The College also has facilities outside London in a biological field station and a mining research station,
At the present time about 2000 students are studying at Imperial College for their first degree. There are also about 1000 research students, working for higher degrees and participating in the research work of the College. A large proportion of them are overseas students from many different countries. There is much excellent research work undertaken at Imperial College in a wide range of subjects. Now research groups include one working on traffic problems, an operational research group, and a history of science department.
Imperial College is still growing in size and numbers, and as an almost independent institution it rivals many other colleges of London University put together. It is possible that it will be associated with other institutes nearby, the Royal Schools of Art and Music, to develop into a separate University. In this way it is hoped to continue to train specialized scientists and engineers in a more varied cultural atmosphere than a university is supposed to embody.

1. research student - аспирант, соискатель
2. overseas students - иностранные студенты


Exercises
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents to the sentences below paying special attention to the parts in italics.

1. The Imperial College of Science and Technology forms part of the University of London. 2. It fulfil. the dual purposes of teaching students and fostering research in science and technology. 3. It was necessary to fully carry out the industrial revolution and Britain in the forepost of technological advance. 4. Imperial Colledge acquired large engineering facilities in addition to those for pure scientific research. 5. A Computer Section develops the facilities of the College's two computers for the use of all departments. 6. There are about 1000 research students, working for higher degrees and participating in the research work of the college. 7. Much excellent research work is undertaken at Imperial College in a wide range of subjects. 8. Imperial College is still growing in size and numbers. 9. Imperial College rivals many other colleges of London University put together. 10. In this way it is hoped to continue to train specialized scientists and engineers.


Ex. 2. Answer the questions according to the model.

Model:
1. What kind of research was Niels Bohr awarded for?
2. He was awarded the Nobel prize for his study of atomic structure and radiation.

1. What kind of research was Darwin engaged in? 2. What research does your team carry on? 3. What kind of research did you carry on last year? 4. I know many biologists who do research in field stations. What kind of research do they carry on there? 5. What kind of research is carried on by means of electron microscopy? 6. What research is usually carried on at the Biochemical department (laboratory)?


Ex. 3. Try to answer the questions as in the model.

Model:
1. Are you going to read for your exam?
2. Yes, I am. I am going to take my exam next month and I am reading for it now.

1. Do you work on your thesis? 2. Is it important to read for the paper you are going to present at the seminar? 3. Were you asked to participate in the foregoing discussion? 4. Do you generally have to read much for your lectures (classes, seminars)? 5. Was your previous research associated with experimenting? 76. Will you be engaged in the solution of any fundamental problem next year? 7. Is anyone of your fellow-researchers working for a higher degree at present? 8. Is your Institute growing in size and numbers?


Ex. 4. Find out all you can about the Imperial College by asking questions. Follow the model. Make up a short talk.

Model:
1. Is the Imperial College of Science and Technology an English scientific institution?
2. I think (As far as I know) the Imperial College is the oldest and most important scientific institute in England.

1. What are the dual purposes of the Imperial College? 2. What famous scientists were associated with the Imperial College? 3. What are the main departments of the Imperial College at present? 4. How many students and research students are studying at the Imperial College at the present time? 5. What new research groups have been formed at the Imperial College? 6. What is the main goal (task, purpose) of the I. C.?


Ex. 5. Insert prepositions.

A

1. Imperial College is fostering research . . . science and technology. 2. It was founded as the Royal College . . . the middle . . . the nineteenth century. 3. The aim . . . its foundation was to keep Britain . . . the forepost . . . technological advance. 4. Many famous scientists were associated . . . the College. 5. There are large engineering facilities . . . addition . . . those . . . pure scientific research. 6. One . . . the departments is headed . . . Professor Chain. 7. The College is fortunate . . . having several new buildings . . . many laboratories. 8. The College has facilities . . . London . . . a biological field station. 9. . . . the present time many research students are working . . . higher degree . . . Imperial College. 10. Much research work is undertaken . . . Imperial College . . . a wide range . . . subjects. 11. The College is growing . . . size and numbers. 12. Very soon it will develop . . . a separate University.

B

l3. What well-known scientists are associated . . . your Institute? 14. This Institute is fostering research . . . cytology. 15. The Institute of Semiconductors was founded . . . the middle . . . the twentieth century . . . Academician Joffe. 16. Our Institute is . . . the forepost . . . physical science. 17. The Laboratory . . . Biochemistry is headed . . . Professor N. 18. The post graduates . . . our Institute are now studying . . . higher degrees.
19. I do a lot of reading . . . my examination in English.20. We hope to train specialized scientists . . . many ways.


Ex. 6. Respond to the statements as in the model.

Model:
1. He learns English (French).
2. As far as I know (I think) he learns English in addition to French.

1. Most of the University professors carry on research work (teaching). 2. The laboratory staff is engaged in applied research (pure scientific one). 3. Dr. H. has published a monograph (several papers). 4. Important theoretical investigations (experimental work) are carried on at the Institute. 5. Recently a new building has been built for the Institute (two old ones). 6. At present the computer centre has several quite modern installations (several older computers).


Ex. 7. A. Find out whether your fellow-student: often applies modern methods and techniques; knows how to apply the law of gravitation; is going to apply for a new position; can apply a new theory in his experiments.

Model:
1. Do you apply the theory of conductivity in your experiments?
2. Yes, I do. In fact I apply it rather often.

B. Talking to your colleague find out whether: he (she) has fulfilled his (her) task; usually fulfills what has been planned.

Model:
1. Had your research program been fulfilled by the end of last month?
2. Yes, it had. I actually had fulfilled it by the beginning of the month.

С. Find out from your fellow-student whether: he (she) followed your advice; his (her) communication was followed by a discussion; he (she) can easily follow English speech; he (she) follows the same technique as you do; the lecture followed by the film was interesting.

Model:
1. Do you follow the procedure proposed by your supervisor?
2. Yes, I do. I strictly follow it. It has proved to be very useful.

D. Talking to your fellow-student find out whether: he (she) has undertaken a new research; any attempts have been undertaken to find a new approach because the old one was not Successful; the work he (she) undertook was a success.

Model:
1. Have you undertaken, any steps (efforts) to find the book you need?
2. Yes, I have. And I have found it at last.


Ex. 9. Make up a talk with your fellow-students about your Institute (laboratory, research) as in the model.

U s e: be the oldest (the youngest); one of the old; one of the new; the aim of the Institute (laboratory) is . . . ;be headed; run by . . . ; have good facilities for research;
be well equipped with . . . ; undertake research work in . . . ; work for higher degree; read for . . . .


Ex. 10. Answer the following questions.

A

1. What kind of institution is the Imperial College of Science and Technology? 2. What are the purposes of the College? 3. In what field does it foster. research? 4. When did the College begin as the Royal College of Science? 5. Why was teaching and pursuing science so necessary at that time? 6. What helped to keep Britain in the forepost of technological advance? 7. Who was associated with the early days of the College? 8. What facilities did the College acquire? 9. What are the main departments of Imperial College? 10. Are there any new buildings being built for the College? 11. Is the College related to the University of London? 12. What was realized in the middle of the nineteenth century? 13. What historical events of great importance took place in the middle of the nineteenth century? 14. What department is run by Professor Chain?

B

15. What can you tell us about your Institute? 16. What is your opinion of the research carried on at your Institute? 17. What do you think is the main purpose of this research? 18. What are the facilities for research at your Institute? 19. Has it any facilities outside the town? 20. How many research students are there at your laboratory? 21. Is your Institute growing in size and numbers? 22. Are there any new research units (teams) at your Institute and what are they working on? 23. What well-known scientists work at your Institute?


Ex. 11. Give a full affirmative answer to the following questions. Make use of an adverb or an adjective in brackets.

Model:
a)
1. Are you doing theoretical or experimental work? (most, mostly}.
2. I am doing experimental work mostly.
b)
1. Is the Imperial College an important scientific institution? (most, mostly).
2. Yes, it is the most important scientific institution.

1. Do you live near your Institute? (close to, closely). 2. How does your adviser follow your work? (close to, closely). 3. Are computers used only for the data processing? (large, largely). 4. How is your laboratory equipped? (good, well). 5. What kind of equipment do you have in your laboratory? (good, well). 6. What laboratory was the last to be founded at your Institute? (new, newly). 7. Where has the Institute been moved? (new, newly). 8. Have you obtained all the necessary data? (near, nearly). 9. Where is your Institute situated? (near, nearly)

.
Ex. 12. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Use such introductory phrases as: you are quite right; it is really; so it is; of course, it is; I quite agree with you. Or: that is wrong, you are wrong; I am afraid you are wrong; on the contrary; I can't agree with you; you are mistaken.

Model:
a)
1. The Imperial College is the oldest institution in England.
2. You are quite right. It is one of the oldest institutions of England.
b)
1. This College does not carry on research in science.
2. But it does. It carries on research in science. (I am afraid you are mistaken, it carries on research in science

1. There are no laboratories at your Institute. 2. To my mind, your Institute has quite up-to-date facilities for research. 3. I hear the staff of your Institute is very small. 4. As far as I know, your research covers wide range of subjects. 5. Your team does not undertake any important research. 6. To my knowledge, a great number of research students are working for their higher degree. 7. There are no research units working on traffic problems at your Institute. 8. Your laboratory is not growing in size and numbers at the moment, is it? 9. Research students are not supposed to take their examinations in languages. 10. In the Soviet Union many research institutions are housed in several new buildings with many excellent laboratories.


Ex. 13. Translate into English.

A
1. Империал-колледж - одно из старейших и наиболее важных научных заведений Англии. 2. Колледж представляет собой часть Лондонского университета. 3. Колледж служит двум целям: обучению студентов и проведению большой технической работы. 4. Империал-колледж возник в середине XIX столетия. 5. Очень скоро этот колледж оказался самым передовым учебным заведением. 6. С первыми годами деятельности колледжа связаны имена многих известных ученых. 7. В настоящее время создано несколько больших новых отделений. 8. Во главе одного из таких отделений стоит профессор П. 9. Кроме того, колледж имеет несколько филиалов за пределами Лондона. 10. В колледже сейчас ведутся многочисленные исследовательские работы в широком масштабе. 11. Размеры колледжа и штат преподавателей и сотрудников продолжают расти с каждым годом.

B

12. Этот институт был основан в начале XX века. 13. Сейчас он является ведущим институтом в нашей стране. 14. Исследовательские работы здесь проводятся в широком масштабе и затрагивают многие области физики. 15. Институт имеет большие возможности для научной работы. 16. В институте много аспирантов, которые работают под руководством крупных специалистов. 17. Основными отделами института в настоящее время являются отделы физики и электротехники. 18. В настоящее время разрабатывается ряд новых исследовательских тем. 19. Предполагается выделить из института физическую лабораторию и развить ее в самостоятельный институт.


Ex. 14. Give a talk about your work. Use the words and expressions given below.

1. I work (began to work) at the Institute (at (in) the Laboratory (of), at the Designing Bureau, at the office, at the Research Institute, in the field (of), at a problem, subject, theme). . . . 2. I work in a team (research unit), do independent research. 3. I do theoretical research (applied, experimental). 4. I am concerned with (I deal with) a theme, a subject, investigations, method, technique. I carry on research (in, into), investigation (of), experiments (on). . . . 5. I use (employ, elaborate, work out) different (various) methods, techniques. I experiment on, make experiments, carry on experiments.6. I obtain (collect) the data, the results. I take readings.7. I make (draw) conclusions (arrive at some conclusions) (come to some conclusions). 8. The problem I solve is important (of importance, interesting (of interest), essential). It is the key problem of . . . .


Ex. 15. Give a detailed account of your Institute, laboratory, your research and activity. The questions below may guide you in your talk. Work in pairs.

A

1. Who are you? 2. Where did you study? 3. When did you graduate from the Institute (University)? 4. How long were you studying at the Institute (University).
5. Where do you work? 6. How long have you been working there? 7. What is your field (occupation)? 8. What laboratory do you work at? 9. In what field do you carry on your investigation?
В

1. Where is your Institute situated? 2. Is it far from the place you live in? 3. How long (much) does it take you to come to your Institute? 4. How do you get to your Institute? 5. Do you go by bus or by tram? 6. Do you have any changes? 7. Does your Institute occupy one building or several? 8. Is the building of your Institute large (multistoried)? 9. Is it a new or an old building? 10. When was the Institute established? 11. Who Was the founder of the Institute? 12. After whom is the Institute named? 13. Who is the head (director, deputy director) of the Institute? 14. Is the staff of your Institute large? 15. Is there a Scientific Council at your Institute? 16. Who is the scientific secretary? 17. Does your Institute hold any conferences, symposia or seminars? 18. Are there any distinguished scientists at your Institute? 19. What kind of research does the Institute do?20. What kind of problems does the Institute deal with?21. What is the key problem your laboratory is solving at present? 22. Is the scope of the research wide? 23. How many laboratories (departments) are there at your Institute?

C

1. Where is your laboratory situated (what floor)? 2. Is your laboratory large or small? 3. How many co-workers (collaborators) are there in your laboratory? 4. Who is the chief of your laboratory? 5. How many research workers are there in the laboratory? 6. Are there many laboratory assistants at your laboratory? 7. Is your laboratory subdivided into teams (research units)? 8. Are there senior and junior researchers at the laboratory? 9. What kind of equipment do you have at your laboratory? 10. Are there any big installations and what are they? 11. Are there any special chambers? 12. Where do you keep the equipment (apparatus, instruments) at your laboratory? 13. Is the equipment up-to-date (modern)? 14. Do the collaborators know how to handle (to operate) the installations and apparatus? 15. What kind of research does your laboratory carry on? 16. What does it experiment on (with)? 17. How long does one experiment usually last? 18. How are the obtained results usually processed? 19. In what way do you check your experimental data?

D

I. 1. Are you a postgraduate (a research student)? 2. When did you take your postgraduate course? 3. Have you passed all your examinations already? 4. When are you going to take your exam in English? 5. Who is your adviser (supervisor)? 6. Do you work at your thesis? Have you started to work at your thesis? 7. What part of your dissertation have you already completed? 8. Is the experimental part of your work completed? 9. Have you any publications on the subject you study? 10. When are you supposed to read your thesis? 11. What science degree do you expect to get?
II. 12. In what field do you do (carry on) your research? 13. Are you a theoretician or an experimentalist? 14. What problems do you investigate? 15. Do you study a new area of physics (biology, chemistry)? 16. Do you carry on research individually or in a team? 17. What is the object of your research? 18. What methods do you use (employ) in your work? 19. Do you develop (work out) various methods? 20. What do you usually do when the experiment is over? 21. What do you do with the data you obtain? 22. Is it difficult to analyze the results? 23. Can you claim that the problem you studied is solved?


Ex. 16. Listen to the following taxts and answer the questions.

THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE
The Indian Institute of Science was started with the Departments of Electrical Technology and Pure and Applied Chemistry. The Department of Biochemistry was formed in 1921. In 1935 when Sir C. V. Raman became the Director of the Institute, the Department of Physics was started. During the Second World War, the Department of Aeronautical Engineering was established. After the War, a scheme of expansion was planned. This included improvement in and expansion of the existing departments.
The Institute has been a pioneer in advanced instruction and research in science and engineering in India, and had contributed substantially to the scientific and industrial development of the country. A number of industries has been established as a result of the research carried out in the laboratories of the Institute. The facilities available in these laboratories are made use of both by private and Government-owned industries.

1. What Institute is described in the text? 2. When was the Department of Biochemistry formed? 3. What department was started by Sir Raman in 1935? 4. When was the Department of Aeronautical Engineering established? 5. When did it become possible to improve and expand the existing departments? 6. In what way had the Institute contributed substantially to the scientific and industrial development of the country?

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
The largest and most diversified program of civil research in Canada is carried out by the National Research Council (NRC). Its laboratories are engaged in many investigations of interest to Canadian industry. Some are undertaken on the initiative of the council itself in order to develop promising ideas of its own scientists; some are taken up on recommendations of the Council's associate committees, which include representatives from industry who are interested in particular problems; and others are undertaken in co-operation with individual companies. Routine test work is avoided except when the Council is asked to certify performance of equipment as an independent body.
Each problem presented to the Council is considered on its merits and dealt with in what seems the most practical way: those of national interest may be undertaken at the expense of the Council; the expense of company problems of less than national scope may be shared by the company and NRC; when facilities are not available elsewhere, specific industrial research may be undertaken by NRC, the results of which become the property of the "company,

1. Where is the largest and most diversified program of civil research carried out in Canada? 2. How does the work of NRC contribute to Canadian industry? 3. In what way are the problems presented to the Council dealt with? 4. At what expense is the research on the problems carried out?

THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has been an educational pioneer since its founding. It virtually created the modern profession of chemical engineering and was the first technological institution to recognize and provide for economics as an important element in the education of the engineer. The Institute was the first to establish courses in aeronautical engineering, architectural engineering, chemical engineering, food technology, industrial biology, marine engineering, and naval architecture.
The Institute is at present taking the leadership in upgrading and modernizing the education of engineers. Its Electrical Engineering Department has led the way by a drastic overhaul of its curriculum which embodies a more fundamental approach to electrical engineering. This spirit is now finding rapid acceptance through the School of Engineering.
At present the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has the most comprehensive and varied research programme in the physical sciences and technology to be found in any one place in the world. It has at present under way 900 separate research projects. There is scarcely any aspect of American science and technology that is not touched - and advanced - by its creative activity.

1. Has the MIT been an educational pioneer since its founding? 2. Where was the modern profession of chemical engineering created? 3. What was recognized as an important element in the education of the engineer? 4. What courses were established for the first time by the MIT? 6. How many separate research projects has the MIT under way at present?


Ex. 17. Read the following texts and render them into English using words and expressions studied in the section.

УНИВЕРСИТЕТЫ АНГЛИИ
Британские старейшие и знаменитые университеты Оксфорд и Кембридж были основаны в XII веке. Эти великие центры образования и пауки во многих отношениях придерживаются традиций прошлого, но они снабжены прекрасно оборудованными лабораториями и огромными библиотеками, насчитывающими тысячи томов. Основные предметы (дисциплины), которые преподаются в Оксфорде, включают древние языки, философию, историю, право, медицину, естественные науки и математику. Оксфорд уже с XIII века стал одним из важнейших университетов Европы. Что касается Кембриджа, то в конце XVII века, когда Ньютон был назначен в нем профессором математики, он стал знаменит своей обширной программой по этому предмету. А в 1871 году Максвеллом там была основана экспериментальная физическая лаборатория.
В настоящее время оба университета продолжают оставаться важнейшими центрами культуры и науки Англии.

ПУЛКОВСКАЯ ОБСЕРВАТОРИЯ
Расположенная на Пулковских высотах по линии Пулковского меридиана, Главная обсерватория Академии наук СССР пользуется всемирной известностью. Ее называют "астрономической столицей мира". Обсерватория была построена в 1830-х годах по проекту архитектора А. П. Брюллова. Со времени своего открытия в 1839 году обсерватория играла руководящую роль в русских геодезических работах, труды ее сотрудников по звездной астрономии получили международное признание. В годы войны фашисты варварски разрушили Пулково. Теперь обсерватория восстановлена, капитально реконструирована и снабжена новейшими приборами и оборудованием. В последнее время научные сотрудники много сделали для изучения космоса с помощью наблюдений за советскими искусственными спутниками Земли.

======================== PART III ========================
SCIENTIFIC GATHERING







Text 1
TWELFTH INTERNATIONAL ASTRONAUTICAL CONGRESS
The International Astronautical Congress is an annual meeting of the interplanatory societies of the world. The meeting during October 1-7, 1961 in Washington, was the first occasion that the meeting had been held on the American continent. Of the 750 people registered, some 300 came from countries outside the United States. The president of the Astronautical Congress this year was Academician L. I. Sedov, of the USSR.
The opening ceremony was followed by a reception at the Boiling Air Base.
The technical sessions started at 9 a. m. on October 3. Undoubtedly, the most noteworthy paper of the morning was by A. G. Clarke, under the title "The Social Impact of Communication Satellites". This was presented during the Space Law Colloquium and attracted widespread attention.
The Space Law Colloquium continued in the afternoon and there was a session on energy conversion and yet another simultaneous session on astrodynamics. This last subject was treated as a round-table topic where a number of contributors made both prepared and unprepared comments.
On October 4 the round-table concept was continued with a discussion on the exploration of the solar system by radar and radio astronomy.
On October 5 the now traditional conference boat-trip was made down the River Potomac. This informal occasion probably gives more opportunity for relaxed
discussions between groups of experts than is possible in the more formal atmosphere of the conference hall. The congress reception was held in the evening and was addressed by Academician Sedov.


Exercises
Ex. 1. Read aloud the sentences below and translate them into Russian paying special attention to the parts in italics.

1. The International Astronautical Congress is an annual meeting. 2. The recent meeting was held in Washington. 3. Some 300 delegates came from countries outside the United States. 4. The president of the 12th Astronautical Congress was Academician Sedov. 5. The opening ceremony was followed by a reception. 6. The most noteworthy paper was presented by Clarke. 7. This paper attracted widespread attention. 8. There was a session on energy conversion and yet another simultaneous session on astrodynamics. 9. This last subject was treated as a round-table topic where a number of contributors made both prepared and unprepared comments. 10. The round-table concept was continued with a discussion on the exploration of the solar system by radar. 11. An informal occasion probably gives more opportunity for relaxed discussions between groups of experts than is possible in the more formal atmosphere of the conference hall.


Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.

1. How often are International Atronautical Congresses held? 2. When was the International Astronautical Congress held in America for the first time? 3. Who was the president of this congress? 4. What was the opening ceremony followed by? 5. Were there any simultaneous sessions held during this congress? 6. What paper attracted widespread attention during the first morning session? 7. When was the traditional boat-trip made? 8. What opportunities did it give to the delegates of the congress? 9. When was the reception held and who was it addressed by?


Ex. 3. Answer the following questions making use of the words in brackets and supplying a preposition if necessary.

Model:
a)
1. When was the conference held? (May).
2. The conference was held in May.
b)
1. When did you meet Dr. Green (last year).
2. I met him last year.

1. When was the congress held? (October 1-7). 2. When did the sessions start? (9 o'clock). 3. When was Dr. Glarke's paper presented? (the colloquium). 4. When was the Space Law Colloquium continued? (the afternoon). 5. When was the boat-trip made? (October 5). 6. When was the reception held? (the evening). 7. When do classes usually begin? (autumn). 8. When will the next lecture start? (3 o'clock). 9. When is he going to present his paper? (May). 10. When was this discussion held? (last week). 11. When do you usually have your English lesson? (the morning). 12. When did she make a trip to Armenia? (her holidays).


Ex. 4. Translate into English paying attention to the prepositions of time.

1. Конференция состоялась (was held) в прошлом году. 2. Экзамен состоится (is going to be held) в июне. 3. Банкет состоится 20 мая. 4. Дискуссия началась в 2 часа. 5. Коллоквиум продолжался (continued) во второй половине дня. 6. Я представлю свой доклад (present my paper) в будущем месяце. 7. Доклад будет прочитан во время коллоквиума. 8. Симпозиум проходил с 1 по 6 ноября. 9. Мы занимаемся английским языком по утрам.
Ex. 5. Say a few words about the program of the conference (symposium, colloquium, seminar) you recently attended, using such verbs as start, continue, hold, close and the corresponding time expressions.


Ex. 6. Make sure you understood the statements riglit by asking a question.

Model:
a)
1. The delegates came from different countries of the world.
2. Pardon me, what did you say? Where did the delegates come from?
b)
1. The reception was addressed by Academician Sedov.
2. Sorry, I didn't quite catch what you said. Who was the reception addressed by?

1. The opening ceremony was followed by a reception 2. The most noteworthy paper was presented by Dr. Clarke. 3. They waited for the end of the discussion. 4. The delegates were listening to Academician Sedov. 5. The last morning session started with a general discussion.


Ex. 7. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary and read the statements aloud.

A

1. The 12th International Astronautical Congress was held . . . October 1-7, 1961 . . . Washington. 2. The president . . . the congress . . . that year was L. I. Sedov. 3. The opening ceremony was followed . . . a reception.4. The technical sessions started . . . 9 o'clock . . . October 3. 5. The most noteworthy paper . . . the first morning was presented . . . A. C. Clarke. 6. This paper was presented . . . the Space Law Colloquium. 7. The colloquium began . . . the morning and continued . . . the afternoon. 8. Astrodynamics was treated . . . a round-table concept. 9. The exploration . . . the solar system . . . radar was discussed . . . October 4. 10. The traditional boat-trip made . . . Sunday gave good opportunities . . . relaxed discussions . . . groups . . . experts. 11. The congress banquet held . . . the evening was addressed . . . Academician Sedov.

B

12. The recent meeting . . . the Geographical Learned Society was held . . . last month. 13. It gave good opportunities . . . discussions . . . scientists . . . different parts . . . our country. 14. The exploration . . . the Far East was discussed . . . a special colloquium held . . . the second day. 15. A very interesting paper was presented . . . this colloquium . . . a young researcher . . . the Siberian research centre. 16. The colloquium was followed . . . a lively discussion. 17. The final session was addressed . . . the President of the Geographical Society. 18. She worked . . . a teacher . . . 1956-1965. 19. I shall be very busy . . . this morning, so let us meet . . . the afternoon.


Ex. 8. Insert words and expressions from the text so as to form antonymic pairs with those in italics. Answer these questions.

Model:
1. Did you discuss the same problem or a . . . one?
2. We discussed a different problem.

1. Will the discussion precede the lecture or . . . it?
2. Did the contributors make prepared or . . . comments?
3. Was the round-table discussion a formal or an . . . one?
4. Was the reception held on the first or on the . . . day?


Ex. 9. Answer the following questions using words and expressions from the text instead of those in italics.

Model:
1. When will the meeting of the learned society take placed
2. As far as I know, this meeting will be held next Monday.

1. Is the International Astronautical Congress a yearly meeting? 2. When did the sessions begin? 3. What was the theme of the most remarkable paper of the first morning? 4. Did Dr. Clarke's paper attract general attention? 5. Who spoke at the reception which took place on the last day? 6.^When will you submit your paper? 7. How long do your laboratory seminars last?

Ex. 10. React to the wrong statements below. Use such introductory phrases as: you are not right; I'm. afraid you are mistaken; you seem to be quite wrong; I can't agree. with you, etc.


Model: 1. As far as I know, Astronautical Congresses are national scientific gatherings held in the USA every three years. 2. I'm afraid you are wrong. Astronautical Congresses are annual meetings held in different countries. They are international gatherings for the delegates come from different countries of the world. It was only the 12th Astronautical Congress that took place in the USA, while all the previous ones were held elsewhere.
1. I believe the president of the 12th Astronautical Congress was an American. 2. If I am not mistaken, the opening ceremony was followed by a banquet addressed by the French delegate. 3. The paper presented by A. C. Clarke was not very interesting, was it? 4. If I am not mistaken, the congress closed on October 3. 5. I believe all the delegates left as soon as the technical sessions were over for there weren't any entertainments provided for them. 6. As far as I could gather from the text, there weren't any simultaneous sessions held during this congress, so that all the delegates could attend every session. 7. To my mind, the atmosphere of the conference hall gives very good opportunities for relaxed discussions between groups of experts.

Ex. 11. Use the following verb+noun combinations given in italics in translating the sentences below.

give a lecture (a reception, a talk, a translation)

1. Д-р П. прочел две лекции по генетике (on genetics)
2. Мне понравились лекции, прочитанные д-ром П.
3. Председательствующий устроил прием для делегатов конгресса. 4 Прием был дан в гостинице "Москва" (the hotel "Moskva"). 5. Профессор Н. выступил на открытии конгресса (in the opening session). 6. Речь, произнесенная профессором Н., привлекла всеобщее внимание. 7. Дайте перевод пятого предложения (sentence). 8. Вы дали очень хороший перевод этой статьи. 9. Сделанный им перевод не совсем точен (not quite exact).

hold a conference (a meeting, a discussion, an examination, a reception)

10. Конференция была проведена в июне. 11. Когда состоится собрание? 12. Дискуссия, проведенная на утреннем заседании (in (at) the morning session) привлекла всеобщее внимание. 13. Экзамен будет проведен 5 января. 14. Председательствующий выступил на банкете, устроенном в Доме ученых (the Scientists' Club).

make a comment (a contribution, a discovery, an experiment)

15. Это открытие было сделано в 1933 году. 16. Сделанное им открытие привлекло всеобщее внимание. 17. Морган внес большой вклад в генетику (into genetics). 18. Я не собираюсь (I am not going to) выступать с какими-либо замечаниями. 19. Сделанные профессором Д. замечания очень полезны (useful). 20. Сколько опытов вы проделали на прошлой неделе? 21. Проделанные нами опыты будут обсуждаться на семинаре, который состоится в понедельник (Monday).


Ex. 12. Translate into English.

A

1. Международные конгрессы по астронавтике являются ежегодными научными собраниями 2. Конгресс 1961 года был проведен в Вашингтоне. 3. Это был первый случай, когда такое собрание было проведено в Америке. 4. Председателем этого конгресса был академик Седов из СССР. 5. После открытия конгресса состоялся прием. 6. Секционные (here: technical) заседания начались в 9 часов утра 3 сентября. 7. Доклад Кларка, сделанный во время коллоквиума, привлек к себе широкое внимание. 8. Во второй половине дня было проведено несколько параллельных заседаний. 9. 4 октября была проведена дискуссия об исследовании солнечной системы с помощью радара и радиоастрономии. 10. 5 октября делегаты совершили поездку на пароходе по реке Потомак. 11. На банкете, который состоялся вечером, с речью выступил академик Седов.

B

12. Симпозиум по исследованию Луны и планет (the Moon and the planets) был проведен в октябре. 13. Этот симпозиум привлек к себе широкое внимание. 14. Во время симпозиума состоялось специальное заседание, посвященное исследованию Луны с помощью ракет (rockets). 15. Заседание началось в 10 часов утра и продолжалось во второй половине дня. 16 Профессор П. представил доклад под названием "Важность исследования Луны для будущего человечества" (the future of mankind). 17. После доклада состоялась дискуссия.18. Я должен представить диссертацию (thesis) в июне.19. Тема моей диссертации . . . . 20 Название моей диссертации . . . .


Ex. 13. Answer the following questions in detail so that these answers would make up a comprehensive account of your participation in the work of some scientific gathering.

1. Have you ever had an opportunity to be present at a large scientific meeting? 2. Was it a national or an international congress (conference, symposium)? 3. When and where was it held? 4. Who was its president? 5. What was the most noteworthy paper presented at this scientific meeting? 6. How long did this congress (conference, symposium) last? 7. How many simultaneous sessions were usually held on the same day? 8. Was there any banquet held after the final session? 9. Who spoke on that occasion? 10. Did you or any of your colleagues present papers at this congress (conference, symposium)? 11. Was your paper a success? 12. Was it discussed in detail? 13. Were there any discussions of general interest held during this congress (conference, etc.)? 14. What is your general impression of this congress (conference, etc.)?


Text 2
CHEMICAL WARFARE ON PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES
The First British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference was held at Brighton during November 7-9, 1961 under the presidency of Dr. H. G. Sanders, chief scientific adviser to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. It "was truly an international gathering, for of 470 delegates attending from official research stations. Government departments and manufacturing firms, nearly one-quarter came from fourteen countries overseas.
The conference consisted of ten successive sessions devoted to important present-day problems in plant pathology and their possible solutions by chemical means. During the first two days each session began with one or more introductory paper by authorities on the subject under discussion, and these were followed by brief reports of research in progress at various centres. The morning of the third day was given over to research reports on new insecticides and fungicides, and on novel formulations as well as new methods of applications. In the final session attention was directed to the problems involved in translating research into practice and in introducing insecticides and fungicides into agricultural practice both in Britain and overseas. In all, more than fifty papers or reports were presented from the research departments of official agricultural institutes and industrial firms, including a number from Holland, Germany and Italy.


Exercises
Ex. 1. Give an adequate translation of the sentences below paying special attention to the parts in italics.

1. The First British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference was held at Brighton under the presidency of Dr. Sanders, chief scientific adviser to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. 2. It was truly an international gathering, for of 470 delegates nearly one-quarter came from fourteen countries overseas. 3. The conference consisted of ten successive sessions devoted to important present-day problems in plant pathology and their possible solution by chemical means. 4. Each session began with an introductory paper by an authority on the subject under discussion. 5. These were followed by brief reports of research in progress at various centres. 6. The morning of the third day was given over to research reports on new insecticides and on novel formulations. 7. In the final session attention was directed to the problems involved in translating research into practice and in introducing insecticides into agricultural practice. 8. In all, more than fifty papers or reports were presented from the research departments of official agricultural institutes and industrial firms, including a number from Holland, Germany and Italy.


Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.

1. When, where and under whose presidency was the first British Insecticide and Fungicide conference held?2. Why can it be considered an international gathering? 3. How many sessions did the conference consist of? 4. Were there any simultaneous sessions held during this conference? 5.What problems were the sessions devoted to? 6. Describe the order of each session during the first two days. 7. What was the order of the third morning session? 8. To what problems was attention directed in the final session? 9. How many papers and reports were presented in all? 10. Did all of them come from Great Britain?


Ex. 3. Answer the following questions. Note that we say: an authority (conference, discussion, lecture, boots, paper) on some subject.

Model:
a)
1. Does he know literature well?
2. Yes, he is an outstanding authority on Russian literature.

b)
1. The subject of the lecture was photosynthesis, wasn't it?
2. No, it wasn't. The lecture was on photo-respiration.

1. What was the theme of the conference? 2. The third morning session was devoted to plant growth, wasn't it? 3. What was the topic of the final discussion? 4. Is this book concerned with proteins? 5. Does chapter 3 treat amino acids? 6. What are your laboratory seminars devoted to? 7. What will your next paper deal with?


Ex. 4. Make sure you understood the statement right by asking a question. .Note that we say: a specialist (examination, course of lectures, lesson, classes) in a subject: specialize in some subject.

Model:
1. I missed my French lesson yesterday.
2. Did I get you right? You missed your lesson in French, didn't you?

1. John's speciality is genetics. 2. Ann has just passed her English examination. 3. I am going to take a course of lectures devoted to mathematics. 4. Last year I attended history classes.


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